Presentation on theme: "What phase of water is most common on Earth?"— Presentation transcript:
1What phase of water is most common on Earth? Classifying MatterWhat phase of water is most common on Earth?
2Matter: Classifying stopper nail test tube pipet rubber band ruler Given the following materials, use classification to separate them into several groupsstoppertest tuberubber bandpaper clipcopper wirecolored pencilpennynailpipetrulerspoolboltbeakertoothpickindex card
3Physical & Chemical properties Matter has both physical and chemical characteristics. Any characteristic of a material that can be observed without changing the substances that make up the material is a physical property. Any characteristic that describes how one material interacts with another material is a chemical property.
4Four groups based on the makeup of matter: Elements are the simplest pure substances. An element cannot be changed into simpler substances by any chemical process. Elements are made up of atoms
5Four groups based on the makeup of matter: Compounds are pure substances made up of more than one element. Atoms of the elements in a compound are chemically bonded together to form molecules. Molecules are changed during chemical reactions.
6Four groups based on the makeup of matter: Mixtures consists of two or more substances mixed together but not chemically combined. Substances in mixtures can be separated by physical means.
7Properties of Mixtures: Each substance retains all its own chemical properties.The substances can be present in any amount.The substances in a mixture can be separated by simple physical means.
8Types of mixtures:Heterogeneous - not identical throughout - not mixed well.Homogeneous - identical properties throughout - well mixed.
9Four groups based on the makeup of matter: Solutions are special mixtures formed when one substance dissolves in another
10Parts of a solution:Solvent - the most abundant substance in the solution.Solute - the least abundant substance in the solution.
11Solution concentration: a comparison of the amount of solute dissolved in an amount of solvent. One way is to express concentration is by using percentage of mass. For example, a 5% solution of sodium hydroxide contains 5g sodium hydroxide in each 100g of solution.
12Solutions have two main traits: Particles are too small to see.Particles are evenly distributed.
13All solutions are not liquids Air is a solution of gases.Steel is a solution of metals
14What phase of water is most common on Earth? Most of the water on Earth is in the liquid phase. While oceans obviously come to mind, there are huge amounts of liquid water under ground. Much of this water is found in underground rivers known as "aquifers".
15Matter is known to exist in 4 phases Phases of MatterMatter is known to exist in 4 phasesSolidLiquidGasPlasma
16Phase change:The physical change of matter from one phase to another. A phase change takes place because the particles of a substance gain or lose energy, causing them to change their motion.
177 Possible Phase Changes: Condensation - gas to liquidFreezing - liquid changes to solidSublimation - solid changes to gas
187 Possible Phase Changes: Melting - solid changes to liquidVaporization - liquid changes to gasSnow gas changes to solidEvaporation - vaporization that takes place at the surface of a liquid.
20Every pure substance has a: Freezing point temperature - the temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid.Melting point temperature - the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid.
21Every pure substance has a: Boiling point temperature - the temperature at which a liquid boils.
22Fluidany substance that flows. Liquids and gases are fluids.
23Viscosity the resistance of a fluid to flow. Water has a low viscosity.Honey has a high viscosity.
24Elements and Compounds Element cannot be changed by chemical means.
25Elements and Compounds Atom the smallest particle of an elementChemical symbols - a shorthand for elementsCompound - two or more elements chemically combined
26Elements and Compounds Molecule - the smallest particle of a compoundChemical formulas - combinations of chemical symbols representing compounds
27Chemical Symbols Represent Elements Chemical symbols can be one or two letters. The first letter is always a capital case and the second letter is always a small case. Do not get sloppy when writing chemical symbols.
28What number is never used as a subscript in a chemical formula? 1
29Chemical formulas represent compounds Oxidation numbers are used to determine the ratio in which elements combine to form compounds.
30Can you identify the atom represented here? An atom is mostly empty space.The Bohr Model:What makes up most of the volume of an atom?
31Neutrons Sample Problem: How many neutrons are in a zinc atom? atomic number - atomic mass = # neutrons= 35 neutrons