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PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. Sex and Gender 9
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–2 Chapter Objectives After completing this chapter, readers should understand sex and gender as they relate to diversity in organizations. They should specifically be able to explain differences in women’s and men’s participation rates, employment, and income levels. discuss the role of gender role socialization in men’s and women’s occupational choices and opportunities. explain the effects of sex segregation, sex discrimination, and sexual harassment on women’s careers and discuss selected cases related to them.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–3 Chapter Objectives (cont’d) After completing this chapter, readers should understand sex and gender as they relate to diversity in organizations. They should specifically be able to discuss similarities and differences between employment experiences of White women and women of color and White men and women of color. understand the role of negotiation in male/female salary differences and the feminization of poverty as diversity concerns. discuss methods that can be used to improve organizational cultures for gender equity.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–4 Sex and Gender Issues Sex discrimination and other gender-based diversity issues affect both men and women.Sex discrimination and other gender-based diversity issues affect both men and women. “The 51% Minority”“The 51% Minority” Women are overrepresented in lower level, lower- paid jobs and underrepresented in higher-level, higher-paid jobs. Women are inaccurately construed as relatively new entrants to the workforce. Devaluation of women’s work plays a key role in sex discrimination and harassment, sex segregation of jobs, and the glass ceiling.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–5 Sex and Gender SexSex An individual’s sex is biologically determined by the presence of either XY chromosomes (male) or XX chromosomes (female) A very small number of people have a different combination of chromosomes. GenderGender A social construction reflecting what society perceives as appropriate (behaviors, dress, occupation, etc.) for males and females that varies by culture and over time.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–6 T ABLE 9.1 Sex Ratios by Age: 2002 (Males per 100 Females) Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, March 2002.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–7 Relevant Legislation Legislation particularly relevant to sex and gender at work includes:Legislation particularly relevant to sex and gender at work includes: 1963The Equal Pay Act 1964Title VII of the Civil Rights Act Executive Orders for Affirmative Action 1978The Pregnancy Discrimination Act 1980EEOC Guidelines on Sexual Harassment 1993The Family and Medical Leave Act
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–8 Employment Levels, Types, and Income Participation RatesParticipation Rates Females represent 51% of the population and 47% of the workforce. In 2002, there were 76.7 million men and 67.4 million women participating in the labor force. Nearly 60% of all women and 75% of men participate in the labor force. About 94% of women who want to work are employed. Nearly 60% of women with children under 5 work outside the home.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–9 T ABLE 9.2 Educational Attainment of the Population (25 Years and Over) by Sex: March 2002 (Numbers in Thousands) Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, March 2002, Special Populations Branch, Population Division. Internet Release Date: March 24, 2003.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–10 T ABLE 9.3 Mean Income in 2002 by Educational Attainment of Population 18 Years and Over (Percent Female of Male Earnings)
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–11 T ABLE 9.3 Mean Income in 2002 by Educational Attainment of Population 18 Years and Over (Percent Female of Male Earnings) (cont’d) *Large standard error ($13,004) explains high mean wage for Hispanic woman with master’s degree. Median of $46,255 is more representative. Note: Percentage calculations are the author’s. Source: Table 8. Income in 2002 by Educational Attainment of the Population 18 Years and Over, by Age, Sex, Race Alone, And Hispanic Origin: 2003. U.S. Census Bureau, www.census.gov/population/socdemo/education/CPS2003/tab08-3.xls, accessed 10/07/05.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–12 T ABLE 9.4 2002 Actual and 2012 Projected Participation Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex Source: http//www.bls.gov/emp/emplab2002-03.htm, accessed 04/09/04. In many countries, women comprise more than half the population and about half the workforce.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–13 Employment Levels, Types, and Income (cont’d) Sex SegregationSex Segregation Occurs when members of one sex constitute 70% or more of the incumbents of a job or occupation Strongly characteristic of women’s jobs in the U.S. and most other societies There are seven times as many male-dominated jobs as female-dominated jobs. The laws of supply and demand suggest that the crowding of women into a limited number occupations contributes to women’s lower wages.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–14 T ABLE 9.5 10 Leading Occupations of Employed Women: Full-time Wage and Salary Workers 2002 Annual Averages (Employment in Thousands) Note: Median not available where base is less than 50,000 male workers. Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Annual Averages 2002.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–15 Gender Role Socialization Gender Role SocializationGender Role Socialization The process by which social institutions, including families, friends, organizations, and the media, form and shape expectations of acceptable behaviors for men and women. Effects of SocializationEffects of Socialization Affects women’s treatment in organizations Neutralizes (constrains) the effectiveness of antidiscrimination and equal pay legislation Many women “choose” female dominated work without even considering similar male-dominated, more lucrative positions.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–16 T ABLE 9.6 Comparison of Average Annual Earnings of Male-Dominated and Female- Dominated Positions in the Same Fields Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2003.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–17 T ABLE 9.7 Comparison of Average Annual Earnings and Percent Female in the Teaching Profession Source: % female taken from Dunn, D. (1999). “Women: The Fifty-One Percent Minority.” In A. G. Dworkin & R. J. Dworkin (Eds.), The Minority Report, Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace. Average wages taken from U.S. Census Bureau, 2003, Table 294. Average Salaries for College Faculty Members: 2001 to 2003, pp. 415–435; http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/03statab/educ.pdf, accessed 12/08/04.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–18 Sex Discrimination Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in employment-related matters. Sex-Based Disparate TreatmentSex-Based Disparate Treatment Occurs when an applicant or employee, typically a woman, is intentionally treated differently than males are treated. Disparate or Adverse Impact (against women)Disparate or Adverse Impact (against women) Occurs when an employer’s apparently neutral policy or practice (“job requirement”) negatively affects women’s employment opportunities.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–19 Sexual Harassment Unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature in the workplace; a form of sex discrimination, illegal under Title VII.Unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature in the workplace; a form of sex discrimination, illegal under Title VII. Negatively affects job satisfaction, morale, productivity, turnover, absence, and increases targets’ intentions to quit A common phenomenon for working women Less likely to occur in places where work roles are clear and workers are treated respectfully Oncale v Sundowner Offshore Services Supreme Court ruled that harassment does not require the parties to be of different sexes.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–20 Forms of Sexual Harassment Quid pro quo harassmentQuid pro quo harassment Managers, supervisors, or others with authority make sexual demands and submission to or rejection of those demands is used as a basis for employment decisions (such as promotion, termination, etc). Hostile environmentHostile environment Unwelcome sexual conduct has the “purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with job performance, or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment.”
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–21 Curbing Sexual Harassment Facts:Facts: 85% of harassment targets are women. Most men who experience harassment are harassed by other men. When men complain of sexual harassment, often they are not taken seriously. Reducing Sexual Harassment:Reducing Sexual Harassment: Women in managerial and supervisory roles An appropriate support and a zero tolerance policy Training that clarifies acceptable and unacceptable workplace behavior reporting channels, and appropriate responses
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–22 The Glass Ceiling and Other Boundaries Glass CeilingGlass Ceiling An invisible barrier that prevents women, people of color, and people with disabilities from progressing beyond a certain level in organizations. Often erroneously perceived or referred to as beginning near top management, including executive positions Sticky FloorsSticky Floors The commonplace situation of relatively few women or minorities advancing past first or second level management.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–23 The Glass Ceiling and Other Boundaries (cont’d) Glass WallsGlass Walls The invisible horizontal barriers that constrain women, people of color, and people with disabilities to certain occupations and positions within organizations Confines members of these (and other nondominant) groups to staff (supportive) versus line (decision making with profit and loss responsibility) positions. Prevents those constrained by them from obtaining breadth of experience and exposure required for advancement.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–24 The Glass Ceiling and Other Boundaries (cont’d) Glass EscalatorGlass Escalator Refers to men’s rapid ascent into management and higher-level positions after entering female-dominated occupations. This anomaly may reflect the well-known general preference for men as managers and leaders and the perception of “think manager, think male.”
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–25 Breaking the Glass Ceiling Institutional ObstaclesInstitutional Obstacles The “old-boys’” network Perceptions that women’s leadership styles are inconsistent with management. Lip service, but no accountability for advancing women Selection, appraisal, and compensation systems that disadvantage women Cultural discouragement Sex discrimination and harassment
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–26 Sex, Race, and Ethnicity White Women and Women of ColorWhite Women and Women of Color Being a woman and a person of color multiplies disadvantages stemming from multiple race and gender stereotypes, discrimination, and segregation. White Men and Men of ColorWhite Men and Men of Color White men are have higher earnings and are overrepresented in management and executive positions when compared with all women and with all other men.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–27 Unique Gender Issues Gender and PovertyGender and Poverty Factors in the “feminization of poverty” Lower rates of participation in the workforce Greater amount of part-time work The male-female wage gap Longer life expectancies Negotiating PayNegotiating Pay Women accept what is offered rather than bargaining for pay: contributes to the wage gap and slows career advancement
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–28 Unique Gender Issues (con’t) Under payment can create dissatisfaction and turnover Women who do negotiate are less successful at it than men who negotiate.
© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.9–29 Key Terms CoethnicCoethnic Gender role socializationGender role socialization Sex segregationSex segregation Wage gapWage gap
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