Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Child Development Its Nature and Course Fifth Edition State University of New York at Geneseo Henderson State University Slides by Travis Langley Ganie.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Child Development Its Nature and Course Fifth Edition State University of New York at Geneseo Henderson State University Slides by Travis Langley Ganie."— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Development Its Nature and Course Fifth Edition State University of New York at Geneseo Henderson State University Slides by Travis Langley Ganie B. DeHart Child Development Its Nature and Course San Jose State University Robert G. Cooper University of Minnesota L. Alan Sroufe

2 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 2: The Contexts of Development Photo copyright © Used with permission.

3 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Introduction Human development is strongly influenced by the context in which it occurs. Extreme deprivation leads to abnormal development as in several known cases: Victor, “the wild boy of Aveyron” Genie some institutionalized children Within more typical ranges, differences in developmental contexts produce varying developmental paths.

4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Bronfenbrenner describes developmental contexts as a series of concentric rings. Cultural Context Social and Economic Context Immediate Environment Child’s Biological Makeup

5 The Child’s Biological Makeup

6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Child’s Biological Makeup At the center of Bronfenbrenner’s model, the child’s biological makeup includes three components: evolutionary heritage shared by all humans the child’s individual genetic inheritance biological results of interactions between genes and environment

7 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Human Evolutionary Heritage We have a fairly precise timetable for many developmental milestones. We have a strong disposition to act upon the environment, to be curious rather than passive. We have an innate propensity for learning simple (e.g., sucking) and complex (e.g., language) skills. Children also inherit a predisposition to be social, to interact and form bonds with others of their species.

8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Individual Genetic Characteristics Individual genetic differences have allowed our species to meet environmental challenges over hundreds of thousands of years. There are direct and indirect effects of individual genetic makeup. Direct: Effects on mental & physical development. Indirect: Effects on the expectations of others (e.g., when people treat a child with Down’s syndrome differently).

9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Interactions Between Genes and Environment Canalization: The extent to which genes constrain environmental influences on particular traits. Canalization: The extent to which genes constrain environmental influences on particular traits. For some capacities (e.g., dispositions), canalization is relatively weak early in life, and constraints become more rigid with age. For other capacities (e.g., institutionalization effects at 4-12 months), strong canalization exists early, but later there is increased openness to environmental influences.

10 The Child’s Immediate Environment

11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Child’s Immediate Environment The child’s immediate environment includes all settings, people, and objects that touch the child’s daily life. family day-care peer group neighborhood school

12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Family as a System Bidirectional effects: Two-way developmental influences between family members. Bidirectional effects: Two-way developmental influences between family members. Transactional model: Sameroff’s model describing the cumulative effects of ongoing two-way influences between children and parents. Transactional model: Sameroff’s model describing the cumulative effects of ongoing two-way influences between children and parents.

13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Characteristics of Family Systems Family systems are complex, made up of many subsystems: relationships between siblings between parents and children between mother and father All these subsystems are joined together in a coherent, interlocking network. A family is a dynamic, open system, subject to both change and continuity. They are subject to cyclical influences that can be repeated across generations.

14 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fathers in the Family System Direct effects: emotional attachment involvement intensifies in toddler period, especially for boys sex-role learning cognitive development achievement motivation personality development

15 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fathers in the Family System Indirect effects: impact on the behaviors of mothers or siblings marital harmony or disharmony Children of single mothers can benefit from their mothers’ relationships with men, even men who are not their biological fathers.

16 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Siblings in the Family System Older siblings can be companions, teachers, and models. Children help take care for younger siblings. Older siblings can learn from new roles and interpreting younger child’s behavior. Siblings influence one another through their impact on parents.

17 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Immediate Contexts Outside the Family Day-care 1 in 4 children are cared for by grandparent or other relative. 1 in 5 are cared for by father at home. About 1 in 5 are cared for by a nonrelative such as an individual babysitter or a family day-care provider. Researchers have noted no negative effects of full- time day care for toddlers and preschoolers. It can promote cognitive and social development if high quality. The debate continues regarding day care for those under one year of age.

18 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Immediate Contexts Outside the Family Peer group Teaches how to interact in equal-status, or symmetrical relationships. Reinforces values, beliefs, and behavior standards that are part of the child’s culture.

19 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Immediate Contexts Outside the Family Neighborhood condition of houses, streets, etc. facilities businesses people activities

20 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Immediate Contexts Outside the Family School Instructor in cultural norms and values. How the school is run and how teachers interact with students can affect how positive the school experience is for children.

21 The Social and Economic Context

22 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Family Changes Caused by Social and Economic Factors The majority of married women with children now work outside the home. Number of single-parent families has increased, due to divorce and birth to unmarried mothers.

23 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Maternal Employment and Its Effects Depends on: The child’s age Amount of time mother spends at work Quality of shared time remaining Quality of substitute care Strength of the parent-child relationship Meaning of the woman’s employment to both herself and her husband.

24 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Maternal Employment and Its Effects Mothers unhappy with their situation, especially dissatisfied nonworking mothers, have more problems child rearing than those who are satisfied. If a husband is displeased with wife’s employment, he may have more negative feelings toward his children and parenting responsibilities. Employed single mothers show better mental health, parenting, social support,and coping skills than those receiving welfare.

25 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Single Parenting and Its Effects Children of unmarried adolescent mothers often show: developmental problems higher rates of school failure delinquency early sexual activity pregnancy Social support, family support, and finishing high school are important for reducing potential developmental problems.

26 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Divorced Parents Every year 1 million U.S. children are involved in divorce. Outcome issues depend on: child’s age, gender, personality quality of home life and parenting resources available whether conflict continues contact with noncustodial parent stepparents

27 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Other Nontraditional Families Adult career women who choose to become mothers outside marriage Single adoptive parents Homosexual parents

28 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Socioeconomic Status and the Family Socioeconomic status (SES): The grouping of people within a society on the basis of income, occupation, and education. Socioeconomic status (SES): The grouping of people within a society on the basis of income, occupation, and education. Stock photos copyright © Used with permission.  Differences in parenting styles have been noted between working-class and middle-class parents.  Poor quality child care cuts across socioeconomic lines.

29 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Poverty and Child Development 11.6 million American children lived in poverty in in 6 children in the U.S. overall. The rate is twice as high for African- American and Hispanic children. About 40% of the children in single- mother households.

30 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Poverty and Child Development Poor families experience much more stress: more negative events job loss eviction illness criminal assault housing problems dangerous neighborhoods

31 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Poverty and Child Development Results of poverty and greater stress: can make parents depressed, irritable, distracted more punitive, erratic behavior can become self-perpetuating cycle lack of opportunities

32 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Homelessness Single mothers with young children are the most rapidly growing segment of the homeless population. Receive less prenatal care. Higher rates of low birth weight and infant mortality. Homeless children suffer more health problems.

33 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Unemployment and Family Relationships Negative impacts on parents’ functioning. Associated with increased family conflict. Increased anxiety and depression throughout family. Decreased self-esteem.

34 The Cultural Context

35 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Culture: A system of beliefs, attitudes, values, and guidelines for behavior shared by a group of people. Socialization: The process by which children acquire the rules, standards, and values of a culture.

36 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cultural Influences Adults in all cultures must: Provide for infants with basic nurturance needed for development. Prepare children to function as adults in their particular social world. Pass on rules, standards, and values of the culture via socialization.

37 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cultural Change and Child Development Parenting practices have changed over the decades and centuries as economic life patterns have changed. Technology has steadily raised the average standard of living and life expectancies. China is a recent example of rapid cultural change (family-centered to state-centered shift).

38 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Subcultures Groups whose beliefs, attitudes, values, and guidelines for behavior differ in some ways from those of the dominant culture.

39 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Development as Context Development provides a context in two ways: 1. It gives each person a developmental history. 2. It provides context for future development.

40 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Contexts in Interaction Central message of this chapter Human development always occurs within a set of contexts: biological makeup immediate environment broader social & economic context cultural context child’s own developmental level & history

41 Child Development Its Nature and Course Fifth Edition State University of New York at Geneseo Henderson State University Slides by Travis Langley Ganie B. DeHart Child Development Its Nature and Course San Jose State University Robert G. Cooper University of Minnesota L. Alan Sroufe


Download ppt "Child Development Its Nature and Course Fifth Edition State University of New York at Geneseo Henderson State University Slides by Travis Langley Ganie."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google