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The Cell Membrane. What is the cell membrane? AKA: Plasma membrane AKA: Plasma membrane The boundary between the cell and the environment The boundary.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cell Membrane. What is the cell membrane? AKA: Plasma membrane AKA: Plasma membrane The boundary between the cell and the environment The boundary."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cell Membrane

2 What is the cell membrane? AKA: Plasma membrane AKA: Plasma membrane The boundary between the cell and the environment The boundary between the cell and the environment Does every cell have a cell membrane? Does every cell have a cell membrane? Yes, Each and every cell has a cell membrane. Yes, Each and every cell has a cell membrane.

3 Cell membranes help maintain homeostasis, what is that? 1. Cells breathing 2. Cells getting blood to them 3. Cells maintaining internal conditions 4. Cells reproducing

4 How do cell membranes help to maintain homeostasis? The cell membrane allows nutrients to come into the cell The cell membrane allows nutrients to come into the cell Glucose, amino acids, lipids Glucose, amino acids, lipids The cell membrane removes waste The cell membrane removes waste

5 Selective Permeability The cell membrane lets some molecules in and keeps others out The cell membrane lets some molecules in and keeps others out EX. A cell is low on glucose so the membrane lets in some glucose, but does not overfill the cell with the macromolecule. EX. A cell is low on glucose so the membrane lets in some glucose, but does not overfill the cell with the macromolecule.

6 Structure of the cell membrane What does the cell membrane look like up close? What does the cell membrane look like up close? Lets look at one of these structures up close

7 Structure of cell membrane Phospholipids Phospholipids Phosphate head Phosphate head Glycerol Glycerol 2 Fatty acid tails(lipids=fats, oils, etc) 2 Fatty acid tails(lipids=fats, oils, etc)

8 Phospholipids 1.) Phosphate Head 1.) Phosphate Head Polar Polar Hydrophilic Hydrophilic Make up the outer borders of the membrane Make up the outer borders of the membrane 2.) Fatty Acid Tails 2.) Fatty Acid Tails Nonpolar Nonpolar Hydrophobic Hydrophobic Make up the inner part of the membrane Make up the inner part of the membrane

9 Structure of Phospholipid

10 Polar vs. Nonpolar Polar- positive and negative ends (b/c electrons are not shared equally) Polar- positive and negative ends (b/c electrons are not shared equally) Ex. Water Ex. Water Nonpolar- does not have oppositely charged ends (atoms share electrons equally) Nonpolar- does not have oppositely charged ends (atoms share electrons equally)

11 Why are the phospholipids arranged tail to tail? - b/c water is inside and outside the cell - b/c water is inside and outside the cell phosphate group is hydrophilic (polar) end phosphate group is hydrophilic (polar) end -attracts water -attracts water fatty acid tail end is hydrophobic (nonpolar) fatty acid tail end is hydrophobic (nonpolar) -repels water -repels water

12 Structure of cell membrane Phospholipid bilayer Phospholipid bilayer 2 layers of phospholipids make up a cell membrane 2 layers of phospholipids make up a cell membrane

13 Phospholipid Bilayer Remember polar heads and nonpolar tails Remember polar heads and nonpolar tails

14 Arrangement of phospholipids “tail to tail”

15 Arrangement of phospholipids “tail to tail” due to water inside & outside the cell

16 When something is hydrophilic, it… 1. Has a chemical makeup that likes to be around water 2. Has a chemical makeup that does not like to be around water

17 Where would you expect to find water in this cell membrane? 1. Here 2. Here

18 Other components of the cell membrane Cholesterol Cholesterol Helps to stabilize the phospholipids and keep them from sticking together Helps to stabilize the phospholipids and keep them from sticking together

19 Other components of the cell membrane Proteins Proteins Regulate which molecules enter and which molecules leave a cell. Regulate which molecules enter and which molecules leave a cell.

20 Types of proteins in the cell membrane Carrier Protein Carrier Protein Allow needed substances or waste materials to move through the cell membrane Allow needed substances or waste materials to move through the cell membrane

21 Types of proteins in the cell membrane Channel or Pore protein Channel or Pore protein Hydrophilic channel – allows lipid insoluble substances to pass in and out of cell. Hydrophilic channel – allows lipid insoluble substances to pass in and out of cell.

22 Types of proteins in the cell membrane Glycoproteins Glycoproteins Protein with what macromolecule attached to it? Protein with what macromolecule attached to it? Carbohydrate Carbohydrate Functions for cell to cell recognition Functions for cell to cell recognition

23 Types of proteins in the cell membrane Receptor Protein Receptor Protein These have binding sites for molecules such as hormones or substrates to bind to These have binding sites for molecules such as hormones or substrates to bind to

24 Fluid Mosaic Model of Cell Membrane -lipid bilayer is not strong & firm like a hard shell, but it is fluid like a soap bubble (often called a fluid mosaic model) -lipid bilayer is not strong & firm like a hard shell, but it is fluid like a soap bubble (often called a fluid mosaic model) -individual phospholipids, arranged side by side, float within the bilayer (cholesterol prevents phospholipids from sticking together) -individual phospholipids, arranged side by side, float within the bilayer (cholesterol prevents phospholipids from sticking together)

25 Structure of Cell Membrane -nonpolar interior zone- true barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings -nonpolar interior zone- true barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings many polar particles like sugars, proteins, ions, & most cell wastes cannot cross this zone b/c they are repelled by the nonpolar region many polar particles like sugars, proteins, ions, & most cell wastes cannot cross this zone b/c they are repelled by the nonpolar region

26 Arrangement of cell surface proteins

27 Cell Membrane Structure

28 Lets build a cell membrane together online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objid=AP1101 online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objid=AP1101 online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objid=AP1101 online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objid=AP1101


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