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An Overview of Building Fire and Smoke Control Systems Design and Commissioning presented to Arkansas ASHRAE – ASHRAE Chapter 62 by Steve Williams, P.E.

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Presentation on theme: "An Overview of Building Fire and Smoke Control Systems Design and Commissioning presented to Arkansas ASHRAE – ASHRAE Chapter 62 by Steve Williams, P.E."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Overview of Building Fire and Smoke Control Systems Design and Commissioning presented to Arkansas ASHRAE – ASHRAE Chapter 62 by Steve Williams, P.E. | Brian Olsen, P.E.

2 Introduction - General Over 35 years of design experience Support staff of 350 Local Office Wide variety of project types #1 Retail firm in U.S. ( based on number of projects and square footage Retail Construction Magazine-2006 ) Specialty division of Henderson Engineers, Inc. Staff of 30 fire protection professionals Nationwide exposure Significant fire alarm, suppression and code consulting experience HEI - Lowell HEI – Kansas City

3 Introduction – Presentation Overview –Overview of Smoke Control Engineered Smoke Control Systems Stairwell Pressurization Atrium Smoke Evacuation –Lobbies –Malls Health Care –Anesthetizing Locations

4 Introduction – What is Smoke Control –Passive vs. Active Passive –‘Smoke Resistant Construction’ –Smoke Barriers – 20 minute rated openings Active –Pressurization Systems »High-rise of old »Healthcare –Atrium Smoke Exhaust »Exhaust »Makeup Air –Stair Towers »Exhaust »Makeup Air

5 Introduction – Why Smoke Control –Inhalation injury from smoke and the noxious products of combustion in fires may account for as many as 75% of fire-related deaths in the U.S. –Key concept - minimize vertical smoke migration. Passive smoke control is known for poor maintenance. Unsealed penetrations, terminations, etc. –Basic concept of Smoke Control is to allow occupants to reach a protected means of egress –Fire Department Operations Tool (arguable purpose but fire departments will use it this way – fire fighters control panel) –Architectural Design Flexibility Atlanta Marriot 47 Story Fire Example

6 Introduction – Smoke Development

7 Part 1 Codes – Applicable Codes/Guidelines –2003 International Building Code (IBC), Section 909 –NFPA 101 – Life Safety Code –NFPA 92A – Recommended Practice for Smoke Control Systems –NFPA 92B – Guide for Smoke Management in Malls, Atria, and Large Areas –ASHRAE 1999 HVAC Applications, Chapter 51 –ASHRAE Principals of Smoke Management Handbook –Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) Building Inspector Fire Marshall-State and Local

8 Part 1 Codes – Where Required –Atriums (IBC 404.4) –Enclosed Malls meeting Atrium definition (IBC 402.9) –High-rise –Windowless Buildings – Prisons (IBC 408.8) –Smoke Protected Seating (IBC ) –Healthcare –Stair Towers (IBC ) 75 ft above fire department access

9 Part 1 Codes – Where Required –Atriums (2003 IBC /404.4) “Atrium. An opening connecting two or more stories other than enclosed stairways… [ lists all shaft scenarios]…, which is closed at the top and not defined as mall…” “404.4 Smoke Control. A smoke control system shall be installed in accordance with section 909.” –Stair Towers (2003 IBC ) “ Smokeproof enclosures. … each of the exits of a building that serves stories where the floor surface is located more than 75-feet above the lowest level of fire department access or 30-feet below the level of exit discharge … shall be a smoke proof enclosure or pressurized stairway.”

10 Part 1 Codes – Smoke Control Methods –IBC 909 does not specify a specific type of smoke control system. Options include: Pressurization –.05-inches water gauge across smoke barriers Airflow –Air Curtain Exhaust –Atriums

11 Part 1 Codes – Exhaust Method –Prescriptive Design 5 MW Steady State Heat Release 20 Minute Duration –Performance Design Rational Analysis – 2006 IBC Times 1.5 X Egress Time Fire based on fuel load 4.6 MW 260 Seconds 1 MW at 7 Minutes

12 Part 1 Codes – Exhaust Method –Prescriptive Design 5 MW Steady State Heat Release (IBC 909.9) –Rather large for some scenarios 20 Minute Duration (IBC ) –20 minute smoke barrier opening protection Tenability (IBC ) –10-feet smoke interface 2003 IBC –6-feet smoke interface 2006 IBC Exhaust Capacity –Axisymmetric Plume (IBC ) –Balcony Spill Plume (IBC ) »In calculations air density must be adjusted for elevation and smoke temperature. See ASHRAE Principals of Smoke Management Handbook

13 Part I Codes – Exhaust Method Air Movement –Exhaust Stratification Stack Effect Plugholling –Makeup Air Natural or Mechanical 85% total exhaust is rule of thumb 200 fpm maximum velocity towards fire –Distortion of smoke plume Introduce Below Smoke Layer

14 Part 1 Codes – Equipment Criteria –UL Listings Fans Smoke Dampers Fire Alarm Control Panel BAS –Fire Fighters Smoke Control Panel –Fire Command Center? –Equipment Temperature Ratings IBC –Initiation as required by Rational Analysis Sprinklers Manual Pull Stations Properly Zoned Sprinkler Waterflow Detection

15 Part 2 Design – Smoke Control Design Team –Specialty Engineered System –Multidiscipline Effort Architect MEF Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)

16 Part 2 Design – Architectural Component –Smoke Control Objective –Aesthetics –Automatic Door Hardware –Owner/Team Communication –Alternatives

17 Part 2 Design – Mechanical Engineering Component –Makeup Air Configuration –Exhaust Air Configuration

18 Part 2 Design – Mechanical Engineering Component –Fan Specification (IBC ) 1.5 X Belts Required for Design Duty Minimum 2 Belts Fan Temperature Ratings –Duct Specifications (IBC ) Withstand fire pressures and temperatures Field Tested to 1.5 X maximum design pressure –Smoke Damper Approach Omit where air path is instrumental to system operation –Fire Damper Approach Higher Temperature Heat Links –BAS Positive Indication of Fan Status

19 Part 2 Design – Electrical Engineering Component –Primary Power –Secondary Power Dedicated Fire Resistant ATS/Secondary Power Room 60 Second Transfer Time (IBC ) 15 minute duration UPS for volatile memory BAS (IBC ).

20 Part 2 Design – Fire Protection Engineering Component –Design Approach/Rational Analysis Design Fire Stack Effect/Hot Air Stratification Temperature/Wind Effect HVAC System Considerations Plugholling Duration of Operation (Egress Calculations)

21 –Automatic Sprinkler System Zone Coordination –Fire Alarm and Detection System –Firefighters Smoke Control Panel –Special Inspections Part 2 Design – Fire Protection Engineering Component

22 Part 2 Design – Authority Having Jurisdiction Component –Interpretations –Design Approval –Acceptance Criteria

23 Part 3 Commissioning – General –Why Commission Prove System Functionality Develop Benchmark for Future Testing –Commissioning Concerns Outside Normal Services Educate Architects/Contractors/Owners Early –Commissioning Team Owner Engineers AHJ Air Balance and Test Group

24 Part 3 Commissioning – Preparation –Construction Completion/Partial Occupancy –Inspection –Component Level Testing Functionality Test –Pre-test Test System as a Whole –Final Acceptance Test Presence of AHJ Smoke Test if Required –Early AHJ coordination can avoids this

25 Part 3 Commissioning – Smoke Testing Subjective - Smoke testing is extremely subjective although it will be required in many jurisdictions. NFPA 92A discusses smoke testing in detail. NFPA 92A (2002) Section A speaks to the limited value of smoke testing. Hot/Cold Smoke Testing Limitations

26 Part 3 Commissioning – Smoke Testing (con’t) Smoke Bombs –Superior Smoke »Smoke Volume »Discharge Time Smoke Generators –Theatrical Units

27 Part 3 Commissioning – Air Balance Test Reports –Air Balance Contractor Clear Scope –Exhaust Fans –Makeup Air Fans –Makeup Air Inlets Capability to Adjust Equipment

28 Part 3 Commissioning – Initiation –Fire Alarm Smoke Detection Manual Alarms Waterflow

29 Part 3 Commissioning – Initiation (con’t.) –Fire Fighters Smoke Control Panel Status Indication Control

30 Part 3 Commissioning – Secondary Power Fans Controls –Reboot

31 Questions? Thank you.


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