Life: Small Picture to Big Picture Macromolecules
What are Macromolecules? Cells and their organelles are made up of smaller building blocks called macromolecules. There are 4 basic types of macromolecules. They are: –Lipids –Proteins –Carbohydrates –Nucleic Acids
Monomers & Polymers Macromolecules are actually made up of even smaller subunits. Each subunit of a macromolecule is called a monomer. The macromolecules themselves are called polymers, because they are made up of many of these subunits. Monomer: one basic unit or subunit Polymer: a chain of many basic units
What you need to know: Names of the 4 macromolecules Structure- monomers and polymers of each Function- what are they used for? Food sources- what foods will you find these in? Indicator Tests- what tests do we use to find out if a food contains them?
Proteins: Structure Proteins are made up of… –Monomer (basic unit): amino acids 20 different kinds!* –Polymer (chain of units): protein More specifically- polypeptides dipeptide Amino acids linked by peptide bonds
Proteins: Structure* 20 Amino Acids: Some of these are polar & hydrophilic, others are non- polar and hydrophobic. Proteins can contain both kinds.
Proteins: Structure Proteins have complex structures. The shape of a protein determines its function! The levels of protein structure are: –Primary structure: polypeptide chain –Secondary structure: polypeptides in coils or sheets –Tertiary structure: coils or sheets form a tangle –Quaternary structure: more than one tangle combine to make a very complex protein!
Proteins: Function Build and repair muscle and tissues –“No pain, no gain!” Enzymes- proteins that speed up chemical reactions
Proteins: Food Sources Proteins are found in meat, fish, legumes, nuts, milk, eggs, grains and soy products. There are 6 amino acids that our bodies cannot make- we can only get these from food.
Proteins: Indicator Test Biuret’s Solution: –Turns from blue to purple if protein is present
Carbohydrates: Structure Carbohydrates are made up of… –Monomer (basic unit): simple sugars (or monosaccharides) Ex.: glucose –Polymer (chain of units): complex carbohydrates (or polysaccharides) Ex.: starch, cellulose, chitin, glycogen Disaccharide: 2 simple sugars bonded together
Carbohydrates: Function Provide body with energy! –What should you eat before playing the big game? Candy bar or pasta? Candy bar: contains simple sugars, provides a short burst of energy Pasta: contains starch which takes longer to break down, provides longer-lasting energy –*We can’t digest cellulose- it is used as fiber, or roughage instead. Ex. : corn Complex carb (ex. Starch) Simple sugars (ex. Glucose) Broken down to disaccharides Broken down further
Carbohydrates: Food Sources Simple carbs (simple sugars) are found in most candy and sweet drinks, fruit, vegetables, and milk. They are quickly digested and give a short burst of energy. Complex carbs (like starches) are found in pasta, bread, potatoes, legumes & corn. They take longer to digest, and provide energy longer.
Nucleic Acids: Structure Nucleic Acids are made up of… –Monomers (basic unit): nucleotides –Polymers (chain of units): DNA or RNA
Nucleic Acids: Function Stores and carries genetic information
Nucleic Acids: Food Sources We get nucleic acid components from vitamins and minerals in our diet. These in turn, come from fruits, vegetables, grains, meats, & almost anything else you can think of with some nutritional value (no junk food!).
Nucleic Acids: Indicator Test You will not be using an indicator test for these but in case you’re wondering… Dische diphenylamine test –Turns from clear-light blue to dark blue if nucleic acids are present
Digestion & Reconstruction When macromolecules are eaten, they are digested and broken down into their subunits (monomers). –Analogy: taking apart an old brick building Inside the cells, these subunits are reconstructed into the macromolecules we need. –Analogy: using bricks to build a new building
Digestion Products Macromolecule eaten: Broken down in stomach to: CarbohydratesSimple sugars (i.e. glucose) LipidsFatty acids & glycerol (glycerol further broken down to glucose) ProteinsAmino acids Nucleic AcidsNucleotides