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What molecules make up living things? ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.

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Presentation on theme: "What molecules make up living things? ORGANIC COMPOUNDS."— Presentation transcript:

1 What molecules make up living things? ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

2 What is an organic molecule? Must contain the element _______ Found in living organisms Some organic molecules contain _________ and _________ Some contain nitrogen (only_______)

3 What is an inorganic molecule? Any molecule that is not organic is _________ Does not contain ________ –Exception is ____  doesn’t contain H LIVING THINGS CONTAIN BOTH ORGANIC AND INORGANIC MOLECULES

4 4 Kinds of Organic Compounds __________ THESE MOLECULES CAN ALSO BE CALLED ___________________ _____= BIG, MOLECULES= DIFFERENT

5 How do carbohydrates look? ____ shaped Contains C,H,O

6 Carbohydrate Scientific Name Monosaccharide is the monomer (building block) name Mono=one  monosaccharide(single carb)  glucose Monosaccharides can join together to form… Di= two  disaccharide (double sugar) glucose+ glucose= maltose glucose +fructose= sucrose glucose+ galactose= lactose Poly  more than two  (polysaccharide)

7 Examples of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides –Glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose Dissacharides – sucrose, lactose, maltose Polysaccharides –Starch, cellulose, chitin, glycogen

8 Disaccharides

9 Polysaccharides

10 Carbohydrates- Biological Function and Features Main source of usable ______ for organisms Used in the presence of oxygen to generate cellular energy (ATP)= cellular respiration Carbohydrates make up part of our cell membrane (hydrophobic) Sweet in flavor –______ is an important complex carbohydrate made from glucose –_________ is a carbohydrate that make up plant cell walls  raw veggies are crunchy because you are eating the cell wall –We store carbohydrates in the liver in a form called GLYCOGEN

11 Carbohydrate Chain on Outside of cell membrane

12 How do living things obtain these carbohydrates? Food that they eat –Grains and plants

13 How are these molecules made and biochemically stored in organisms? Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation)

14 How does condensation occur? One molecule of water is lost for every monosaccharide molecules that come together. Two molecules are then covalently bonded. Can continue to form long chains called polymers

15

16 How do organisms break large carbohydrates for usage? Hydrolysis Using water to split di- and poly- saccharides in order to form monosaccharides (glucose) The monosaccharides can then be used by cell to generate cell energy (ATP)

17 Hydrolysis

18 Animation /dehydrat.htmlhttp://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/dehydrat /dehydrat.html

19 Lipids Also known as ____ or ____ –Fat: solid at room temperature –Oil: liquid at room temp Monomer building blocks of two parts: Glycerol and 3 fatty acids

20 Forming a lipid molecule 3 fatty acids molecules 1 glycerol

21 Process used to form a lipid molecule ___________ (Dehydration Synthesis) 3 Water molecules are drawn out to form one lipid molecule Forms a triglyceride molecule

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23 Lipid formation animation ions.cfm?id=10&debug=0http://nutrition.jbpub.com/resources/animat ions.cfm?id=10&debug=0

24 One Lipid molecule SHAPED LIKE A LETTER E

25 Biological Function Lipids chiefly function in ______ storage, protection, and ________ in living things A main component of cell membranes –Fats: found in animals –Oils: found in animals and plants. Waxes: found in plants solid at room temp. –________: contain fat compounds ( biological hormones, cholesterol)

26 Ways to Recognize a Lipid 3 Fatty acid chains Shaped like a letter E Large and long molecule

27 Types of lipids (fats) Unsaturated lipid (fats): –the fatty acid component contains C bonded to C using a double bond or a triple bond

28 Types of lipids (fats) Polyunsaturated Lipids These lipids have more than one double or triple bond in their fatty acid tails

29 Saturated lipids (fats): all carbon in the fatty acid chains are single bonded

30 What is a protein? _______ are organic molecules that play an important role in _____ and _____ of cells Can be used for _____ Helps to keep a stable body temperature(_________) Growth and repair and support of muscle tissue, hair, skin, nails (ex. Keratin and collagen) Carry out genetic _______ from the nucleus (in ___) Helps to speed up biochemical reactions (_______) Fighting off infections (antibodies)

31 Composition of Proteins Monomer: _______ _____ 3 Parts to an amino acid: Amino _____, __ side chain, _______ acid group

32 How do amino acids come together? ____________ ________ (condensation) Results in a _________ BOND

33 How do amino acids come together

34 How do amino acids form proteins? Condensation/ Dehydration Synthesis Forms a _______ ______ when amino acids combine 2 a.a. coming together= __PEPTIDE 3 or more a.a. coming together = ____PEPTIDE a.a. linked together considered a PROTEIN

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36 Animation- Protein /dehydrat.htmlhttp://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/dehydrat /dehydrat.html

37 How can proteins change? nimations/content/proteinstructure.htmlhttp://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/a nimations/content/proteinstructure.html

38 What are nucleic acids? Compounds that contain ________ and _________ in addition to other organic elements C,O,H Found in ___________ material in the form of ____ or ____

39 DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid Contains the genetic hereditary code that makes each of us different. Our genetic “blueprint”

40 What is RNA? RNA= _________ _____ RNA is _______ stranded Controls genetic messages of the cell to form ________ for the cell.(takes place in ________)

41 Monomer for Nucleic Acids Arranged as repeating NUCLEOTIDES

42 RNA Picture


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