Presentation on theme: "Warm Up: Happy Wednesday!!! Two more school days until Spring break!!!!! What do you know about gladiators? Where have you seen gladiators in the media??"— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up: Happy Wednesday!!! Two more school days until Spring break!!!!! What do you know about gladiators? Where have you seen gladiators in the media??
Roman Culture and Society
Roman Arts and Literature The Romans spread Greco-Roman arts and culture throughout the empire
Roman Arts Developed a taste for Greek statues
Sculpture Sculptures produced more realistic works
Paintings Painters painted portraits and landscapes on walls of villas
Architecture Concrete helped to construct huge buildings that the Greeks could not create Remarkable engineers Roads, bridges, and aqueducts Built 50,000 miles of roads throughout the empire In Rome, a dozen aqueducts kept a population of one million supplied with water
Architecture Excelled in architecture Used curved forms Arch, vault and dome
Parthenon Found in Rome. It was originally built as a temple to the gods. Later converted to Christian (Catholic) church. Best example of Roman Dome building.
Latin Language Romans spoke Latin; it was the official language of the empire. It was the language of government, trade, and culture. If you wanted to do business with Rome, you had to speak Latin. As Rome spread, and eventually broke apart, the language split apart. Latin still is taught in some schools (important for law and medical fields), but not in common use.
Latin Language Splits Language splinters into several other languages when Rome falls. These Languages are called “Romance Languages”, named after Rome itself. French Spanish Italian Portuguese Romanian
Slavery and Slave Revolts No people in the ancient world had more slaves or depended on slaved more than the Romans Large numbers of captured soldiers in war became slaves Used as: household workers, cooks, valets, waiters, cleaners, gardeners, farm laborers Many slave holders were afraid of their slaves b/c they treated them so awful
Slavery and Slave Revolts If a slave killed his master, the slave would be executed and all other slaves would be killed too Most famous slave revolt was led by the gladiator Spartacus In 73 B.C. he led 70,000 slaves Defeated several armies 6,000 of his followers were crucified or nailed to a cross
Spartacus is Hollywood
Aqueducts and Roman Roads Superb builders Network of 50,000 miles of roads Largest was the Appian Way Rome- a dozen aqueducts kept 1 million people supplied with water
Appian Way First Major Roman road. It signaled the start of Rome’s love of building roads.
How Aqueducts Work Aqueducts worked by using gravity to get water to a city. Water key to large cities Drinking Water Sewage (Rome’s sewer system was cutting edge
Life in Ancient Rome City life in Ancient Rome had great problems similar to life today
Family The heart of Roman society was the family Paterfamilias- the dominant (oldest, ususally) male in the house. Included wife, sons and their wives, unmarried daughters, and slaves
Education Raised their children at home Upper-class children: expected to learn and read Father was chief figure in providing education Decided whether to teach them, hire a teacher, or send to school Teachers were often Greek slaves
Adulthood Childhood ended for: Boys- 16 Girls Ceremony for boys- trade in purple toga Girls ceremony- marriage Women must have male guardians Paterfamilias responsibility When he dies, sons or nearest relative takes over
Marriage Girls could get married as young as 12 Boys usually Meant for life 3 rd century A.D.- introduce divorce Easy to obtain Husband or wife could ask for it Fathers arranged marriages for their daughters
Women More independence and freedom Right to own, inherit and sell property Not segregated from men in the homes Could attend races, theater, amphitheater but sit in separate sections Accompanied by maids Could not participate in politics
A Gladiator’s Life Types of Gladiators Circus Maximus and The Colosseum The Roman Gladiators
A Gladiator’s Life As Rome expands it comes into conflict with other cultures Majority of those that become gladiators are because of conquest The conquered were then escorted back to Rome where they would be sold in slave markets
A Gladiator’s Life Sent to a ludus gladiatorious to be trained Training was under the supervision of a lanista or “the butcher” Abuse was common place and was both physical and psychological (whipping most common) Day consisted of lifting weights and learning the art of death
A Gladiator’s Life Common myth is that gladiators were only slaves Majority were but they were criminals, debtors and those condemned to death Trained according to one’s physical attributes or skills
At the Coliseum At the coliseum gladiators fought first Concerned about survival and what lanista will do if you do not perform well After condemned are killed, animals hunted and criminal fights Gladiators fight again in late day but it is to the death now
Death of Gladiators Defeated gladiators could appeal for mercy but it was at the whim of the crowd Death did not always come at the hands of one’s opponent Men dressed as Roman gods would kill the loser in a variety of ways to add to the sensationalism of the event Thumbs down meant to spare the gladiator A thumb up meant to kill him
Colosseum Built by Emperor Vespasian and Titus A.D. Seated 45,000, had two large restroom areas, covered area, numbered seating based on class, and had supporting facilities nearby Longest games were 123 days long
Colosseum Exotic animals hunts, gladiatorial combat, executions, brutal plays, battle recreations and possibly naval battles with alligators entertained the crowds
Zliten Mosaic Originally in a Roman seaside villa Now in Archaeological Musuem Tripoli, Tunisia