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MADISON CURLEY MADDIE LAWRY MAGGIE MORRISON MEGAN VANDERKOOI Russia and Europe/ Two World Wars.

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Presentation on theme: "MADISON CURLEY MADDIE LAWRY MAGGIE MORRISON MEGAN VANDERKOOI Russia and Europe/ Two World Wars."— Presentation transcript:

1 MADISON CURLEY MADDIE LAWRY MAGGIE MORRISON MEGAN VANDERKOOI Russia and Europe/ Two World Wars

2 Terms to know: Romanovs: family the ruled Russia from ; they greatly influenced Russia. Peter the Great: ( ) Greatest Romanov czar, who westernized Russia and made the country a major European power Poltava: decisive battle of the Great Northern War in 1709 in which Peter the Great defeated Charles VII of Sweden Table Of Ranks: Decree by Peter the Great in Russia in 1722 that reconstructed civil and military administration into a system of advancement based on merit Catherine II the Great: (r ) German princess who, as Russian empress, was one of Russia’s most powerful rulers Partitions of Poland: divisions of Poland carried out by Austria, Prussia, and Russia in 1772, 1792, and 1795; leading to the end of an independent Polish state.

3 Terms to know cont. Seven Years’ War: ( ) World war fought in Europe, North America, and India fought due both Austria and Prussia’s desire for Silesia. Prussia won Silesia but became largely indebt because of military expenses Joseph II: the Holy Roman Emperor and head of the Austrian Habsburg lands, who tried to strengthen his realm through radical reform of its social structure (r ) Patriarch: title of the most important bishops in the Eastern Orthodox Church Coup d'état: means “blow of state” in French; the abrupt overthrow of a government by a small group of conspirators

4 PAGES Russia and Europe

5 Peter the Great and Westernization The thirty years after Ivan the Terrible death in 1584 were politically Instable in Russia. This ended in 1613 when the first Romanov Tsar, Michael ascended the throne. The Most important Romanov Peter the Great (r ) transformed Russia into a major European power  In 1697 he traveled around Europe and saw many things which he applied in Russia:  Fashion: men were forbidden to grow beards  Built St. Petersburg  Was ruler during the Great Northern War  The decisive battle of this war was Poltava  At the end during a solemn celebration in St. Petersburg Peter was proclaimed emperor of Russia.  He decreed the Table of Ranks in 1722  He abolished the office of Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church

6 Catherine The Great and the Russian Expansion Was originally called Sophie and was married to Peter III (Peter the Great’s Grandson)  Peter III was a very rash and cruel ruler, his mother was a Romanov and his father was a German duke  He was an unjust and violent ruler over Russia, but he had a special penchant towards the Germans Sophie who was a princess of a German state plotted against her husband in order to overthrow him and rule as a Russian empress After her husband was murdered, she took on the title Catherine II of Russia, she seized all ecclesial lands and reduced the church’s independence from the state She granted much of land this land to some of her more favored citizens along with peasants that went with this land  Because of this serfdom increased largely During her rule, Catherine II the Great expanded the borders of Russia drastically by joining with Prussia in the partition of Poland

7 Peter and Catherine

8 The Pugachev Rebellion and Russian Society In 1773 a massive rebellion against Catherine the Great  It was led by Emelian Pugachev (1742?-1775) a Cossack who claimed to be Peter III  In 1775 Catherine put a stop to the rebellion by imposing administrative centralism by reorganizing Russian into 50 provinces and putting landlords in charge of local government Under Peter and Catherine II Russia became a first- rat European military and diplomatic power

9 PAGE Two World Wars

10 The wars The War of Austrian Succession  Britain and Austria vs.  France and Prussia The Seven Years War  Britain and Prussia vs.  France and Austria  It took place both in Europe, the colonies, and India.

11 THE WAR OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION

12 THE SEVEN YEARS WAR

13 Eighteenth- Century Warfare War was considered to always be ongoing in the relationship between European states Between 1650 and 1750 there was a large growth of professional armies, thus leading to the professional standing army being a standard feature in Eighteenth century states  Were better provisioned and disciplined  Thus less damage was done to civilian population  Taxes were imposed for the armies upkeep The Science of warfare had also emerged  Interest in military engineering  Improved architecture of fortresses (idea of impregnable fortresses)  New drill manuals that specified complex battlefield maneuvers  Fredrick William I pioneer in this field (“the royal drill sergeant”) Was used to enforce the doctrine of the balance of power (Europe functioned best when balance evenly distributed) The Central Issues were those of territory, power and prestige

14 Winners and Losers War ended in 1763 with clear winners and losers Fredrick II (Prussia) was a winner  Silesia never returned to Austria  War put huge strains on Prussia financially and militarily In 1762 pro-German emperor Peter III broke Russia’s alliance with Austria and signed a peace agreement with Prussia  Helped get Prussia out of debt and rebuild their government In 1772 the Prussia King joined with Austria and Russia to partition Poland, finally linking Prussia with Brandenburg

15 Winners and Loser cont. Austria-loser  Austria was heavily weakened in terms of debt. Maria Theresa redistributed taxes to Bohemia, and Austria. She also founded a school that trained state administrators; however both of these reforms failed her in 1756 at the beginning of the Seven Years’ War.  In 1761, she banished the king-centered decision making that was popular to rulers of Prussia and France.  She tackled the problems by focusing on economic improvements  Tried to reduce uncompensated work  Imposed new taxes on Catholic Church She was a catholic But she believed that the church should assume a greater part of the expenses to defend the state  Maria Theresa died in 1780 and was succeeded by her son, Joseph II  In 1780s he abolished serfdom  1789 abolished rents and uncompensated work obligations replacing them with a single cash payment  Reforms led to widespread rebellion  Joseph died in 1790 succeeded by his brother Leopold II  Restored order  Reinstituted serfdom and landlords control of peasants  Austria’s defeat led to radical social reforms  To increase peasants prosperity

16 Important Faces Fredrick William I “The Royal Drill Sergeant”

17 Important Faces Cont Peter III of Russia Maria Theresa Joseph II

18 Important Faces Cont. Leopold II Of Austria

19 HOPE YOU PAID ATTENTION! GAME

20 Question WHAT WAS THE SEVEN YEARS WAR?

21 ANSWER World war fought in Europe, North America, and India fought due both Austria and Prussia’s desire for Silesia. Prussia won Silesia but became largely indebt because of military expenses

22 Question What were the sides in the WAR OF AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION?

23 ANSWER  Britain and Prussia  vs.France and Austria

24 Question War was considered to always be __________ in the relationship between European states

25 ANSWER ongoing

26 Question WHO abolished serfdom?

27 ANSWER Joseph II

28 Question Who were the Romanovs?

29 ANSWER family the ruled Russia from ; they greatly influenced Russia

30 Question Define Poltava

31 ANSWER decisive battle of the Great Northern War in 1709 in which Peter the Great defeated Charles VII of Sweden

32 Question What was the Table of Ranks?

33 ANSWER Decree by Peter the Great in Russia in 1722 that reconstructed civil and military administration into a system of advancement based on merit

34 Question What were the Partitions of Poland?

35 ANSWER divisions of Poland carried out by Austria, Prussia, and Russia in 1772, 1792, and 1795; leading to the end of an independent Polish state.

36 Question What was Catherine the Great Originally called?

37 ANSWER Sophie

38 Question Where did the Seven years War take Place?

39 ANSWER Europe India THE colonies

40 Question Between 1650 and 1750 there was a large growth what?

41 ANSWER Professional armies

42 Question What happened in 1773 in Russia?

43 ANSWER Huge uprising against Catherine the Great

44 Question What does Coup d'état mean in French?

45 ANSWER “blow of state”

46 Question Who was Catherine the Great?

47 ANSWER (r ) German princess who, as Russian empress, was one of Russia’s most powerful rulers

48 Question Who Was Joseph II?

49 ANSWER the Holy Roman Emperor and head of the Austrian Habsburg lands, who tried to strengthen his realm through radical reform of its social structure (r )

50 Question What is a patriarch?

51 ANSWER title of the most important bishops in the Eastern Orthodox Church

52 Question Who Was Peter the Great?

53 ANSWER ( ) Greatest Romanov czar, who westernized Russia and made the country a major European power


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