Presentation on theme: "MADISON CURLEY MADDIE LAWRY MAGGIE MORRISON MEGAN VANDERKOOI Russia and Europe/ Two World Wars."— Presentation transcript:
MADISON CURLEY MADDIE LAWRY MAGGIE MORRISON MEGAN VANDERKOOI Russia and Europe/ Two World Wars
Terms to know: Romanovs: family the ruled Russia from 1613-1917; they greatly influenced Russia. Peter the Great: (1682-1725) Greatest Romanov czar, who westernized Russia and made the country a major European power Poltava: decisive battle of the Great Northern War in 1709 in which Peter the Great defeated Charles VII of Sweden Table Of Ranks: Decree by Peter the Great in Russia in 1722 that reconstructed civil and military administration into a system of advancement based on merit Catherine II the Great: (r 1762-1796) German princess who, as Russian empress, was one of Russia’s most powerful rulers Partitions of Poland: divisions of Poland carried out by Austria, Prussia, and Russia in 1772, 1792, and 1795; leading to the end of an independent Polish state.
Terms to know cont. Seven Years’ War: (1756-1763) World war fought in Europe, North America, and India fought due both Austria and Prussia’s desire for Silesia. Prussia won Silesia but became largely indebt because of military expenses Joseph II: the Holy Roman Emperor and head of the Austrian Habsburg lands, who tried to strengthen his realm through radical reform of its social structure (r. 1780-1790) Patriarch: title of the most important bishops in the Eastern Orthodox Church Coup d'état: means “blow of state” in French; the abrupt overthrow of a government by a small group of conspirators
Peter the Great and Westernization The thirty years after Ivan the Terrible death in 1584 were politically Instable in Russia. This ended in 1613 when the first Romanov Tsar, Michael ascended the throne. The Most important Romanov Peter the Great (r 1682-1725) transformed Russia into a major European power In 1697 he traveled around Europe and saw many things which he applied in Russia: Fashion: men were forbidden to grow beards Built St. Petersburg Was ruler during the Great Northern War The decisive battle of this war was Poltava At the end during a solemn celebration in St. Petersburg Peter was proclaimed emperor of Russia. He decreed the Table of Ranks in 1722 He abolished the office of Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church
Catherine The Great and the Russian Expansion Was originally called Sophie and was married to Peter III (Peter the Great’s Grandson) Peter III was a very rash and cruel ruler, his mother was a Romanov and his father was a German duke He was an unjust and violent ruler over Russia, but he had a special penchant towards the Germans Sophie who was a princess of a German state plotted against her husband in order to overthrow him and rule as a Russian empress After her husband was murdered, she took on the title Catherine II of Russia, she seized all ecclesial lands and reduced the church’s independence from the state She granted much of land this land to some of her more favored citizens along with peasants that went with this land Because of this serfdom increased largely During her rule, Catherine II the Great expanded the borders of Russia drastically by joining with Prussia in the partition of Poland
The Pugachev Rebellion and Russian Society In 1773 a massive rebellion against Catherine the Great It was led by Emelian Pugachev (1742?-1775) a Cossack who claimed to be Peter III In 1775 Catherine put a stop to the rebellion by imposing administrative centralism by reorganizing Russian into 50 provinces and putting landlords in charge of local government Under Peter and Catherine II Russia became a first- rat European military and diplomatic power
The wars The War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748 Britain and Austria vs. France and Prussia The Seven Years War 1756-1763 Britain and Prussia vs. France and Austria It took place both in Europe, the colonies, and India.
Eighteenth- Century Warfare War was considered to always be ongoing in the relationship between European states Between 1650 and 1750 there was a large growth of professional armies, thus leading to the professional standing army being a standard feature in Eighteenth century states Were better provisioned and disciplined Thus less damage was done to civilian population Taxes were imposed for the armies upkeep The Science of warfare had also emerged Interest in military engineering Improved architecture of fortresses (idea of impregnable fortresses) New drill manuals that specified complex battlefield maneuvers Fredrick William I pioneer in this field (“the royal drill sergeant”) Was used to enforce the doctrine of the balance of power (Europe functioned best when balance evenly distributed) The Central Issues were those of territory, power and prestige
Winners and Losers War ended in 1763 with clear winners and losers Fredrick II (Prussia) was a winner Silesia never returned to Austria War put huge strains on Prussia financially and militarily In 1762 pro-German emperor Peter III broke Russia’s alliance with Austria and signed a peace agreement with Prussia Helped get Prussia out of debt and rebuild their government In 1772 the Prussia King joined with Austria and Russia to partition Poland, finally linking Prussia with Brandenburg
Winners and Loser cont. Austria-loser Austria was heavily weakened in terms of debt. Maria Theresa redistributed taxes to Bohemia, and Austria. She also founded a school that trained state administrators; however both of these reforms failed her in 1756 at the beginning of the Seven Years’ War. In 1761, she banished the king-centered decision making that was popular to rulers of Prussia and France. She tackled the problems by focusing on economic improvements Tried to reduce uncompensated work Imposed new taxes on Catholic Church She was a catholic But she believed that the church should assume a greater part of the expenses to defend the state Maria Theresa died in 1780 and was succeeded by her son, Joseph II In 1780s he abolished serfdom 1789 abolished rents and uncompensated work obligations replacing them with a single cash payment Reforms led to widespread rebellion Joseph died in 1790 succeeded by his brother Leopold II Restored order Reinstituted serfdom and landlords control of peasants Austria’s defeat led to radical social reforms To increase peasants prosperity
Important Faces Fredrick William I “The Royal Drill Sergeant”
Important Faces Cont Peter III of Russia Maria Theresa Joseph II