Presentation on theme: "Ughhh!!! Gross! What a total loser! Oh, wait, this is a bully-free zone! Stop being a gossip you NOT-very-nice person! Maybe he has a problem and should."— Presentation transcript:
Ughhh!!! Gross! What a total loser! Oh, wait, this is a bully-free zone! Stop being a gossip you NOT-very-nice person! Maybe he has a problem and should talk to Mr. Myers or Mr. Kirk. Oh no, that loser is looking at me like he’s going to ask me out! What if he tries that stupid line Mr. Kirk used on my grandmother that asks me what my sign is? I know, I’ll tell him it’s “STOP!!!” Oh man! I really screwed up and forgot to get a copy of the book Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck! Mr. Myers and Mr. Kirk will be so disappointed in me, and I’ll fall behind in my work! Oh my gosh! Did you hear? Some kid forgot to get his copy of the book Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck! I used to think he was cute, but now he seems like such a loser. Now to ask out that cute brunette... I’ll bet she’s over there whispering to her friend what a studly rebel I am for not bringing a book to class! Time to work that line Mr. Kirk told me…now how does it go again? Oh yeah, “Hey baby, what’s your sign?”
Targets for Today: I need to know how to find the “subject” and the “predicate” of a sentence. I need to know what the difference is between an INDEPENDENT CLAUSE and a DEPENDENT CLAUSE (which is also sometimes called a “subordinate clause”). I need to know the difference between four types of complete sentences: – Simple sentence – Compound sentence – Complex sentence – Compound-Complex sentence
Simple Sentence: The Oompa Loompa smiled. Simple Sentence version #2: The scary little Oompa Loompa smiled craftily at the spoiled children. Complex Sentence: When the girl turned into a giant blueberry, the scary little Oompa Loompa smiled craftily at the unsuspecting children. Compound Sentence: The girl turned into a giant blueberry; the scary little Oomp Loompa smiled craftily at the spoiled children. OR The girl turned into a giant blueberry, and the scary little Oompa Loompa smiled craftily at the spoiled children. Compound-Complex While the girl turned into a giant blueberry, the scary little Oompa Loompa smiled craftily at the spoiled children, and a two-year old Mr. Myers hid behind the couch and cried.
You can identify a sentence’s structure based on two things: 1. How many clauses are in the sentence and 2. What types of clauses they are.
It’s a word group that contains a subject and its verb. An independent clause can stand alone in a sentence. A dependentcannot stand alone in a sentence.
Simple sentences contain one independent clause and no subordinate clauses. *They may contain compound subjects, compound verbs and any number of phrases. Example: Mr. Myers bought his kitties some new toys. What is the subject? Mr. Myers What is the verb? bought This contains one independent clause and no subordinate clauses.
Compound sentences continued:
Example of a Complex Sentence Which is the independent clause and which is the dependent clause? Although Chris wanted the latest style of wrestling shoes, he chose a less expensive pair that looked pretty. Dependent: “Although Chris wanted the latest style of wrestling shoes,” Independent: “he chose a less expensive pair that looked pretty.”
They make the difference between a clause being INDEPENDENT or DEPENDENT (aka SUBORDINATE clause) after although As because Before If so that than though Unless when whenever Where while We turn you into a punk subordinate clause! Who’s your daddy?
Subordinating Conjunctions after although as as far as if as long as as soon as as though because before considering (that) if inasmuch as in order that
More Subordinating Conjunctions provided (that) since so long as so that than though unless until when whenever where whereas wherever while
Relative Pronouns who whom whose whoever whomever whosoever which whichever whatever that what American Gothic, WHICH is a famous painting by Grant Wood, shows a farmer and his spinster daughter.
Spot the Dependent Clause After running five miles around the track, Henry was much too tired to go to basketball practice. Now that Maria has earned enough money, she can finally buy the concert tickets. He will be allowed to go to the zoo, provided that his homework is finished in time. You cannot watch television, unless you complete your chores. While Alex is a good tennis player, Samantha is better. This is how a zombie sees your brain…YUMMY!
Compound-complex sentences contain two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause. When we became hungry, Gary prepared carrots, and I cooked fish.
Active Voice A verb in the active voice expresses an action done by its subject. The amusement park offered me a free ticket. What is the verb? What is the subject? The action of the verb offered was done by the subject park.
Why does this matter in writing? Passive voice is as correct as active voice, but: passive voice often slows down the pace of writing and speaking active voice is more direct; passive voice is wordier. The passive voice is effective when you do not know or do not want to reveal the performer of the action, or when you want to emphasize the receive of the action. Ex: Overnight, the sidewalk was cleaned. The nests had been built by the robins. Ezra sent his girlfriend a text. Or A text was sent by Ezra to his girlfriend.
Passive Versus Active Voice Active: Mr. Henry punched the student. Passive: The student was punched by Mr. Henry. Why would you chose to use “active” versus “passive” voice? Why would you choose “passive” over “active?” Mr. Myers’ mom ate the cheeseburger. The cheeseburger was eaten by Mr. Myers’ mom.
find the “subject” and the “predicate” of a sentence. tell the difference is between an INDEPENDENT CLAUSE and a DEPENDENT CLAUSE. Tell the difference between four types of complete sentences: Simple sentence Compound sentence Complex sentence Compound-Complex sentence
Misplaced Modifiers A word, phrase, or clause that seems to modify the wrong word or word group in a sentence is a misplaced modifier. Writers can avoid misplaced modifiers by taking car to place the modifier as close as possible to the word or word group being described. Ex: Hanging in the museum, the art students stared in awe at the art. The art students stared in awe at the art hanging in the museum.
Variety in Sentence Structure: Loose and Periodic Sentences A loose sentence (also called cumulative) adds the extra details after the basic statement. Ex: John gave his mother flowers, knowing he made her mad. A periodic sentence places the extra detail before or in the middle of the basic statement. Ex: Knowing he made her mad, John gave his mother the flowers.
Fun example: Brittany Spears is the ideal American girl. (base clause) List adjectives, nouns, adverbs, and verbs that come to mind when you think of Spears. Discussion: What does switching the sentence structure do for the tone of the sentence?
Cumulative Sentence: This type of sentence consists of base clause (a clause is a phrase that has a subject and a predicate) followed by modifying phrases after the subject, verb, and/or object. Consider the following declarative sentence: “Britney Spears is the ideal American girl.” Now consider the cumulative sentence created from that simple declarative sentence: – *“Britney Spears is the ideal American girl—the blonde, pretty one, with the cheerleader smile, dancing like a stripper, singing like a choirgirl, who only cries at home, in her palatial white bedroom, mourning her virginity, mourning what it cost her to perform for us.” Notice how the author starts with a basic idea and then builds upon it using modifiers to create tension and highlight contradictions.
Periodic Sentence: Take the above and flip it. The idea comes at the end: – *“The blonde, pretty one, with the cheerleader smile, dancing like a stripper, singing like a choirgirl, who only cries at home, in her palatial white bedroom, mourning her virginity, mourning what it cost her to perform for us—if Britney Spears is the ideal American girl, the American girl is a study in contrasts.” *What is different about this sentence?
The following is a student’s example using a periodic sentence to develop a rich, detailed image in the beginning of an essay, which has built into it the tensions at the center of her essay’s thinking problem: The perfect imitation of vogue. Short skirts, loose white knee- length socks, platform shoes, all kinds of accessories, bleached re- bonded hair, skin tanned to a golden copper, white-based makeup and glitter on her face, dancing with prefect rhythm and style to Dance Revolution, carrying pictures and little items from her latest pop idol group F4, listening to Britney Spears and N’Sync, keeping scores of photo-stickers of her friend sand herself in cutsey books – she is the epitome of cool Asian pop culture. Self. Does she have one? She is a borrower. Nothing in her is original. She looks to Japanese school girls for her fashion and activities, Korean girls for her makeup, takes her cue from the Taiwanse to idolize F4, and scours American pop culture for music trends. Yet, she is what Malcolm Gladwll would describe in “The Coolhunt” as an “innovator”…..
Note the way that the student follows her long, periodic sentence with abrupt, short sentences, juxtaposing sentence structures to build tension and drama into the form of the beginning of her essay – formal choices that set up her essay’s main thinking problem about how the superficial gestures of pop culture can serve to function both markers of our personality and erasers of our individuality at the same time.
Analyze syntax and its effect. Walking across the square to the hotel everything looked new and changed. I had never seen the trees before. I had never seen the flagpoles before, nor the front of the theatre. It was all different. I felt as I felt once coming home from an out-of-town football game. I was carrying a suitcase with my football things in it, and I walked up the street from the station in the town I had lived in all my life and it was all new. They were raking the lawns and burning leaves in the road, and I stopped for a long time and watched. It was all strange. (The Sun Also Rises, Hemmingway)