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Chapter 4: Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

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1 Chapter 4: Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity
Jen Lubelchek Period 6

2 Sweets are a biological aspect of taste that humans prefer

3 At 8 months we begin to fear strangers

4 3 universal behaviors of humans

5 Define behavior genetics
Behavior genetics: the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.

6 Define environment Environment: every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.

7 “Thanks for almost everything Dad”: A child receives genes from their parents

8 Every cell nucleus contains the genetic master code for one’s entire body

9 Define DNA DNA: a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

10 Define chromosome Chromosome: threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

11 Define genome Genome: the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes

12 Everybody in the world can have similar genetics because we all come from the same two people

13 Define identical twins
Identical twins: twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms

14 Define fraternal twins
Fraternal twins: twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment

15 Identical vs. Fraternal twins

16 Fraternal twins are not any more similar than ordinary brother and sister

17 Identical twins have a greater chance of getting the same disease as their twin than fraternal twins do

18 Matt McGue and David Lykken (1992) study on divorce rates among 1500 same-sex, middle-aged twin pairs: Identical twins have a greater chance to divorce if their twin has divorced than fraternal twins. This shows that genetics play a big role because identical twins have more similarities than fraternal twins

19 Genes matter when explaining individual differences

20 Explain 3 similarities between Jim Lewis and Jim Springer?
Jim Lewis and Jim Springer were virtually the same person when it came to their intelligence, heart rate, and personalities

21 3 similarities between Oskar Stohr and Jack Yufe
They were raised in different environments, but they both flushed the toilet before using it, dipped their buttered toast in their coffee, and liked spicy foods This demonstrates how vital genes are in determining the person that will be. Although these twins were raised in different environments, their genetics played a huge role in showing their similarities

22 This quote demonstrates the power of nature
Bouchard’s quote, “In some domains it looks as though our identical twins reared apart are… just as similar as identical twins reared together. Now that’s an amazing finding and I can assure you none of us would have expected that degree of similarity.” This quote demonstrates the power of nature

23 Bouchard’s critics theory
Data is anecdotal Similarities tend to be common

24 Twin study results give us a greater appreciation for nature
Identical twins have the exact same genes and help the psychology community learn the great power of our genetics and true nature

25 Difference between genetic and environmental relatives:
Genetic relatives are our parents and siblings Environmental relatives are adoptive parents and siblings

26 Common Genetic Traits:

27 Environment impacts personality

28 5 ways parents impact their children
Attitudes Values Manners Faith Politics

29 “Mom may be holding a full house while Dad has a straight flush, yet when Junior gets a random half of each of their cards his poker hand may be a loser.” This quote is questioning if things are predestined to happen to people Quote by David Lykken

30 adopted children thrive for two reason:
No Child neglect Parent divorce is rare

31 children benefits from adoption
7/8 adopted children report strong attachment to adopted parents Adopted children tend to be more altruistic than average Adopted children grow into happier adults

32 Define temperament Temperament: a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

33 Easy vs. Difficult Babies

34 Temperament persists over time.

35 1 piece of evidence that adds to the emerging conclusion that our biologically rooted temperament helps form our enduring personality: An impulsive 3 year old becomes a conflicted 21 year old Temperament and personality are linked

36 Define heritability Heritability: a portion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.

37 Heritability and Environment
If environments were all similar, heritability would increase. When environments drastically differ heritability decreases

38 Self regulating genes Self regulating genes: the concept that genes react different to experiences

39 Eating Disorderes Eating disorders are a western phenomenon
Also, some people may be genetically predisposed to eating disorders

40 Define gene- environment interaction:
Gene environment interaction: the interplay between environment and heredity

41 “Heredity deals the cards; environment plays the hand.”
Life allows you, through hard work, to change your cards Environment plays a big role in expressing one’s genes

42 nature versus nurture NATURE VIA NURTURE The two work together

43 Define molecular genetics
Molecular genetics: the subfield of biology that studies the function of genes

44 goal of molecular behavior genetics:
To find human traits such as body weight

45 There are “missing women” in India and China
In China and India couples often abort their daughters because when a woman marries she has to give a cash gift to the husband from the parent Some couples would rather have sons in order to save money, and when the son begins to work they will give their parents money

46 Define evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary psychology: the study of how our behavior and mind have changed in adaptive ways over time using principles of natural selection

47 Define natural- selection
Natural Selection: the adaptive process; among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations CHARLES DARWIN

48 Belyeav and Trut’s study on foxes
Foxes were wild. Researchers picked tamest foxes, had them mate over 40 years and the foxes became domesticated

49 Trait Selection When certain traits are selected, they will prevail over time

50 Define mutation Mutation: random error in gene replication that leads to change

51 Culture Similarities There are very similar emotions when people greet each other at the airport The emotions and greetings shown are far more similar than different

52 Lewontin’s study on genetic diversity:
As humans we tend to be very similar In a world wide catastrophe the human species would suffer only

53 Predisposed to love sweets and fats

54 Western cultures A love for sweets and fats has led to the obesity epidemic

55 Industrial Revolution (mass production)
We are biologically prepared for a world than no longer exists Our world is constantly changing, and we are not prepared for the changes

56 Darwin: no doubts No scientists currently believe that Darwin was wrong in his theories Natural Selection

57 Evolutionary psychologists’ questions:
Why do humans share some universal things? How are men and woman alike?

58 Men vs. Woman Largest difference between men and woman: males are more likely to initiate sexual activity

59 Pryor’s study Study on college students attitudes towards casual sex
60% of men and 35% of woman believe in the idea of casual sex

60 Fischstein’s study Study on the sexual thoughts of Canadians
Men think about sex 5:1 compared to women

61 Gay men vs. Lesbian woman
Gay men have a more interest in uncommitted sex Gay men are more responsive to sexual stimuli Gay men are more concerned with physical attractiveness

62 Clark and Hatfield’s study
Difference between men and women’s attitudes towards casual sex No women accepted causal sex in this study ¾ of men were fine with having casual sex

63 Illusory correlation When men perceive friendliness as a come on it leads to more sexual harassment and date rape

64 Men vs. Women’s approach to sex
A woman’s approach is relational A man’s approach is recreational

65 4 characteristics that men find attractive irrespective of culture
Youthful appearance Clear and smooth skin A woman that is fertile

66 Men’s universal attraction to waists and hips
Men feel most attracted to women whose waist is roughly 1/3 narrower than their hips

67 Men’s attraction to women at different ages
At 13, a boy would be most attracted to a girl is 16 or 18 At 25, a man would be most attracted to a woman around their age At 50, a man would be most attracted to a younger woman

68 4 characteristics that woman are attracted to in men
Mature Dominant Bold Affluent

69 Women prefer long term mates
They invest in their joint offspring Woman prefer long term mates

70 Roney’s study Study on women and baby pictures
When men enjoy looking at baby pictures most women rate them at a higher chance of a long term mate

71 Critiques of evolutionary psychology:
Often works backwards to propose an explanation Doesn’t take environment into consideration

72 Rats that were raised in a communal playground in terms of their brain development:
A significant development in cerebral cortex in a good environment rather than an improvised environment

73 Kolb and Whishaw Kolb and Whishaw discovered that the rat’s brain weight increased by 7 to 10 percent and the number of synapses mushroomed by about 20% when in the comparison of being raised in a good verses bad environment

74 Explanation of Fields study on premature babies
Fields study on premature babies: touch is absolutely essential for development, massaging a premature baby makes it grow

75 Pruning process Pruning Process is unused neural pathways weaken
Used neural pathways become strong

76 Critical Period for Language
It is critical that people learn language prior to adolescence During toddlerhood a child should be learning a language because one will never master a language after adolescence

77 Brains role in terms of maturation
The brain’s rule is use it or lose it

78 Plasticity Plasticity: the brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience.

79 Family impacts.. Political attitudes Religious beliefs Personal mates

80 Vietnam and Cambodia Vietnam and Cambodia have remarkable academic success because they have close knit, demanding families that are supportive towards their kids

“If you want to blame your parents for your own adult problems, you are entitled to blame the genes they gave you, but you are not entitled—by any facts I know—to blame the way they treated you…. We are not prisoners of our past.” PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY One can not blame every aspect on their genetics

82 Developmental psychologist Sandra Scarr
Many parents try to mold their child into a version of themselves Scarr would give these parents the advice that they need to accept their kids for who they are and let them become their own person

83 selection effect When it comes to smoking, kids seek out peers with similar attitudes and interests When kids smoke, they usually seek out other people that they can smoke with

84 “Men resemble the times more than they resemble their fathers.”
This demonstrates the power of environment We tend to be like our surroundings

85 Howard Gardener’s Ideas
6 ways parents are more influential than teens: education, discipline, responsibility, orderliness, charitableness, interacting with authority figures 3 ways teens are more influential than parents: learning cooperation, for finding road to popularity, for inventing styles of interaction among people of the same age

86 “It takes a village to raise a child.”
This quote means that parents and peers both play a big role in the development of a child

87 nature Natures greatest gift to us is our ability to learn and adapt

88 Define culture Culture: the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

89 Baumeister He believes that human nature is designed for culture
This is because we are said to be social animals We travel in packs usually

90 Cultural Diversity Cultural diversity is more relevant to Los Angeles than Japan

91 Cultural Differences In India and Japan people think does are for the outside and should not be worn inside This is a cultural difference between the US and India and Japan

92 Define Norm Norm: a understood rule for accepted behavior
Examples: When someone sneezes another person says, “Bless You” or when someone is around you, you hold the door open for them

93 Personal Space Personal space: the bufferzone we maintain around our bodies Mexican and Canadian personal spaces differ

94 Mediterranean Countries
Someone from a Mediterranean country is more likely to be late for an appointment than a person from Northern Europe

95 Culture Shocks The two greatest culture shocks are the different paces of life and peoples differing sense of punctuality for peace corps volunteers

96 Conveniences of modern times

97 Individualist culture
Individualist culture: give priority to one’s own goals over group goals

98 Collectivist Culture Collectivist culture: give priority to the groups goals over onself

99 Individualist Cultures
Individualist cultures come from North America and Western Europe They strive for personal control and individual achievement

100 Collectivist society Korean society is an example of a collectivist society They do things for each other and do not strive for personal achievement

101 collectivist culture DEEPER ATTATCHMENT TO THE FAMILY

102 Individualist culture

103 Difference in attribution in winning
There is a difference in attribution in winning between an American athlete compared to a Japanese athelte Americans often use the word “I” Japanese often use the word “We”

104 Table 4.1

105 Western Cultures Westernized student are more inclined to be independent rather than comply to authority

106 Concept of Family Self Family self: a feeling that what shames the child shames the family, and what brings honor to the family brings honor to self

107 Define gender Gender: in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics y which people define male and female

108 Chromosomes in Men and Women
One chromosome out of 46 determines your sex This proves that men and women are more similar than different

109 Men vs. Women Women enter puberty earlier, women live 5 years longer, are 5 inches shorter, have 40% less muscle than men

110 Differences that men and women fall victim to
Woman have greater sense of smell, they express their emotions more freely, woman are offered help more often Men are more fall victim to ADHD, color blindness, and antisocial disorder

111 Define aggression Aggression: any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone

112 relational aggression
Relational aggression: this is aggression like excluding someone

113 Physical aggression Physical aggression: hitting someone

114 Aggression in Dating It is likely for both male and female to hurt someone in a dating relationship When domestic violence gets worse, it is usually because of the male

115 Traditional Men Hunting, fighting, warring are three traditional male activities Men are more likely to support war

116 Men and Woman Perceptions
Men are perceived as dominant, forceful, independent Woman are perceived as deferential, nurturing and easier to get a long with

117 Importance for Men Men place more importance on power and achievement around the world than woman do

118 Men and Jobs Men usually get higher salary for the same job as a woman

119 Carol Gilligan Carol Gilligan believes men are more concerned as being individuals and woman are more concerned with making connections

120 Groups Boys play in larger groups Girls play in smaller groups

121 Boys tend to be more competitive

122 Male answer syndrome Male answer syndrome: men tend to make up an answer if they don’t know the answer to a question

123 Activities that Woman Engage More in than Men
Girls spend more time with friend as teens Send more time on facebook Woman take more pleasure in talking face to face They use conversation to explore relationships

124 Who talks more? Men and woman talk an equal amount

125 Who did woman feel closer to; their mother or father?
90% of women feel closer to their mother

126 Why people turn to women more often:
Women tend to be more intimate, enjoyable, and nurturing

127 Tend and Befriend Tend and befriend: when men are in a stressful situation they isolate themselves and women look to each other for support

128 Women Women are more likely to be spiritual

129 Men and Woman Changing Over Time
Men become more empathetic as they get older Woman become more dominant as they get older

130 Evolutionary Psychologists
Evolutionary psychologists believe that men act like men because of sex hormones

131 You cannot tell the sex at 7 weeks
At seven weeks we are indistinguishable from the other sex

132 Define x chromosome X chromosome: sex chromosome found in both men and woman, females have 2 and men have 1. 2:1

133 Define y chromosome Y chromosome: sex chromosome found in only males, and x and y makes a man

134 Define testosterone Testosterone: most important in the male sex hormones

135 Advantages in men and women
Men: parietal lobe is thicker (gives them advantage in sports) Women: the frontal lobe is thicker (word fluency, word recognition)

136 Excess Testosterone in Females
When females get excess testosterone in the womb the genetically female infants are born with masculine appearing genitals, act more aggressive or dress like a tomboy

137 Brenda Reimer Brenda Reimer lost his penis the parents raised him as a girl rather than a damaged boy, he married a girl and killed himself later

138 Define role Role: a set of expectations about a social position

139 Define gender roles Gender roles: expected behaviors from male and female

140 Gender Roles outside of the House
Men work about 1 and half more and woman work on the family for an hour a day more

141 Gender Equity There is gender equity in Norway, Findland and Australia

142 Decades for Women’s Rights
1960’s and 1970’s the % of women who enter college doubled Good time for woman’s rights

143 Immigrants and Gender Roles
A girl who immigrates to American could be morally torn in America because children can feel torn between the competing set of gender role norms presented by peers and parents

144 Define gender identity
Gender Identity: our sense of being male or female

145 Define gender typing Gender typing: the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

146 Define social learning theory
Social learning theory: we learn social behavior through rewards and punishments

147 Define schema Schema: a concept that helps you make sense of your world (they are constantly getting redefined)

148 Define gender schema Gender schema: how you interpret the world through the male or female lens

149 Concept of being a gender detective
Gender Detective: we pick up on everyday social ques

150 Figure 4.8

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