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Jean M. Williams, Nate Zinsser, & Linda Bunker “But with hard work, with belief, with confidence and trust in yourself and those around you, there are.

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Presentation on theme: "Jean M. Williams, Nate Zinsser, & Linda Bunker “But with hard work, with belief, with confidence and trust in yourself and those around you, there are."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jean M. Williams, Nate Zinsser, & Linda Bunker “But with hard work, with belief, with confidence and trust in yourself and those around you, there are no limits.” Michael Phelps, winner of 18 Olympic gold medals Chapter 14 Cognitive Techniques for Building Confidence and Enhancing Performance Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

2 There is a direct correlation between self-confidence and success Must understand confidence and how to enhance it in athletes What is the relationship between thoughts and confidence? How do self-talk and particular thinking habits influence confidence? ThoughtsFeelingsBehavior Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

3 Confidence Self-Confidence: Feeling of assurance Belief in one’s power Expectation of success Sport Confidence: An individuals’ belief that they can do whatever it takes to be successful in their sport Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

4 Confident Athletes Have high: Mental toughness Optimism Self-efficacy Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

5 Mental Toughness –Related to confidence –The unshakable belief in your ability to achieve goals (Jones, Hanton, & Connaugton ) –The way some athletes can remain more determined, focused, confident, and in control better than competitors –Belief + Focus Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

6 Optimism Also related to confidence Expect the best possible outcome Focus on the most hopeful aspects of a situation In sport, it means looking for opportunities to score, win, and excel Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

7 Self-Efficacy Situational-specific type of confidence Having the expectation of succeeding at a specific task or meeting a particular challenge Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

8 Misconceptions about Confidence Either you have it or you don’t Only positive feedback can build confidence Success always builds confidence Confidence = outspoken arrogance Mistakes inevitably destroy confidence Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

9 Prerequisites for Gaining Confidence 1.Understanding the interaction of thought and performance Confident athletes deliberately direct thoughts to produce powerful feelings  improves performance 2.Cultivate honest self-awareness “Am I really thinking in a way that will give me the best chance of success?” Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

10 Prerequisites for Gaining Confidence (cont.) 3.Develop an optimistic explanatory style Explanatory style = the way an athlete internally responds to events that occur in his or her life Optimistic explanatory style views errors as temporary and atypical, views successes as more permanent, general, and indicative of true ability Explanatory style has 3 dimensions: Permanence Pervasiveness Personalization Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

11 Prerequisites for Gaining Confidence (cont.) 4.Embrace a psychology of excellence Go for your dreams Focus on your successes Be your best friend, biggest fan and greatest coach Create your own reality Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

12 Self-Talk Dialogue with yourself Giving yourself instructions and reinforcement or interpreting what you are feeling Can be out loud or inside your head Self-talk is an asset when it enhances self-worth and performance Key to cognitive control Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

13 Constructive vs. Destructive Self-Talk Constructive: Fosters positive expectancies Enhances self-worth and confidence Enhances performance Appropriately focuses attention on the task Destructive: Focuses on what you don’t want (usually is negative) Distracting to the task at hand So frequent it disrupts automatic performance Engage in derogatory self-labeling (e.g. loser, choker) Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

14 Uses for Self-Talk Skill acquisition and performance Use words to cue action Learning: technique cue words As skills improve: strategies/feeling cues Self-talk to direct attentional focus Changing bad habits Focus on desired outcome vs. error Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

15 Uses for Self-Talk (cont.) Attention control Remain in the present tense Create/change affect or mood Control effort Building self-efficacy and confidence Adoption/maintenance exercise behavior Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

16 Identifying Self-Talk Athletes need to develop awareness around the ways in which they talk to themselves in different types of situations Identify what kind of thinking helps, what thoughts are harmful, and what situations are associated with this talk Must know when and how to talk to yourself Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17 3 effective tools for identifying self-talk 1.Retrospection Re-create the thoughts and feelings that occurred prior to and during a good or bad performance Recall the specific circumstances that led to the thoughts and resulting performance 2.Imagery Recreating all relevant sensory experiences of a past performance 3.Self-talk log Keep a thought awareness logbook What do I say before, during, and following my good and poor performances? How frequently am I talking to myself? Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

18 Techniques for Controlling Self-Talk Thought stoppage Changing negative thoughts to positive thoughts Countering Reframing ABC cognitive restructuring Affirmation statements Mastery and coping tapes Video technology Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

19 Thought Stoppage Method for eliminating counterproductive thoughts Become aware of unwanted thought Use a trigger to interrupt or stop the undesirable thought Practice by combining it with imagery of past performance Might be difficult for some to suppress an unwanted thought Beware: focusing on suppressing unwanted thoughts can increase them Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

20 Changing Negative Thoughts to Positive Thoughts Use when thought stoppage does not work Learn to couple any negative thought with a positive thought that provides support or appropriately redirects attention Switch to a positive thought as soon as you are aware of a dysfunctional self-statement Combine this technique with a relaxation Stop the negative thought Take a deep breath Slowly exhale and substitute the self- enhancing thought as body relaxes Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

21 Countering An internal dialogue that uses facts and reasons to refute the underlying beliefs and assumptions that led to negative thinking Use this technique if the athlete still believes in the negative statements Identify and build a case against the negative self- statements Use past evidence and future possibilities to refute underlying beliefs that led to dysfunctional thinking Argue against the dysfunctional and for the more functional self-talk Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

22 Reframing The process of creating alternative frames of reference or different ways of looking at the world Interpret situations in a more positive way Can transform weakness/difficulty into a strength /possibility Does not deny or downplay what the athlete is experiencing or encourage the athlete to ignore something troublesome Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

23 Irrational and Distorted Beliefs Perfection is essential: Must be thoroughly competent, successful, and achieving in all possible respects Catastrophizing: Expect disaster, worst-case scenario (awfulizing) Worth depends on achievement: You are your accomplishments Personalization: Everything is some kind of reaction to you Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

24 Irrational and Distorted Beliefs (cont.) Fallacy of fairness and ideal conditions: Expect fair treatment/ideal conditions and resentful when others don’t agree with your definition of fairness Blaming: Make excuses/blame others or, at the other extreme, unreasonable self-blame All-or-nothing thinking and labeling: No shades of grey – often judgmental and prone to negative labels. Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

25 Irrational and Distorted Beliefs (cont.) One-trial generalizations: Form general conclusions based on a single incident or piece of evidence Shoulds: List of ironclad rules for behaviour - get angry or feel guilty when violated Emotional reasoning: What you feel must be true Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

26 Modifying Irrational and Distorted Thinking ABC Cognitive Restructuring Based on REBT by Albert Ellis Helps identify and dispute irrational beliefs in maladaptive thinking The idea is that it’s faulty thinking, not the situation, causes the deleterious emotional reaction and behavior The ultimate goal = create such awareness that athletes immediately recognize and dispute dysfunctional self-talk Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

27 ABC Cognitive Restructuring Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

28 Affirmation Statements Statement that reflect positive attitudes or thoughts about oneself Positive action-oriented statement The most effective affirmations are both believable and vivid State in present tense and avoid perfectionistic demands Use a self-esteem list to help create affirmations Write/say many times Once the affirmation becomes true, choose another and begin again Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

29 Coping and Mastery Self-Talk Tapes or Files Mastery self-talk tape/file: Voice describes a perfect performance including ideal thoughts, feelings, and emotions experienced just before, during, and after performance Coping self-talk tape/file: Allows the athlete to practice dealing with all the potential things that could go wrong by describing a negative situation and bad reaction but then rehearsing coping strategies and processes for regaining control/confidence Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

30 Coping and Mastery Self-Talk Tapes or Files (cont.) Videotape, CDs, or DVDs: Splice personal or team highlights (select performances where athletes excel at the skills or strategies currently needing emphasis); watch many times while imaging the action, with accompanying emotions and self-talk Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


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