Outline I. Body Language: Unspoken Communication A. What is body language? B. Why do we need body language? II. Functions of Body Language A. Indicator of thoughts and feelings B. Social Cue III. Eye Movements A. Eyeblinks B. Gaze aversion IV. U. S. Presidential Elections V. Demonstration DVD VI. Summary and Conclusions
U. S. Presidential Candidates 2008 Blink Rate McCain 140 Obama 60 Romney16
Blink Frequency and U. S. Presidential Elections Year Faster Blinker Loser 1960Nixon Nixon 1980Carter Carter 1984Mondale Mondale 1988Dukakis Dukakis 1992Bush Bush 1996Dole Dole 2000 Bush Gore 2004Kerry Kerry 2008McCain McCain
Conclusion Blink frequency is an accurate predictor of U. S. Presidential election outcomes.
Social Cue Hypothesis In social situations, blinking can influence how one person views the other.
Conclusions 1.Blink frequency is increased by negative hedonic states and is decreased by positive hedonic states. 2.The blink-hedonia hypothesis best explains research findings on blinking and psychological functions.
Eyeblink Rates and Levels of Stress J. J. Tecce February 5, 1996 TalkingOn CameraStress LevelBlink Rate* NoNoLow15 - 20 YesNoLow-Moderate21 - 30 YesYesModerate-High31 - 50 YesYesHigh51 - 70 YesYesVery High71 – 140 * Numerical values represent blinks per minute. According to the hedonia hypothesis, higher blink rates reflect negative feelings, such as those that occur during greater mental effort (as in talking) or during stress (as in talking to a large audience, being on camera, or being asked an anxiety-producing question) (Tecce, 1992, McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology).