Presentation on theme: "Body Language and U. S. Presidential Elections J. J. Tecce Boston College Social Science Librarians Boot Camp Tufts University June 1, 2012."— Presentation transcript:
Body Language and U. S. Presidential Elections J. J. Tecce Boston College Social Science Librarians Boot Camp Tufts University June 1, 2012
PPT Slides Elections Report
Outline I. Body Language: Unspoken Communication A. What is body language? B. Why do we need body language? II. Functions of Body Language A. Indicator of thoughts and feelings B. Social Cue III. Eye Movements A. Eyeblinks B. Gaze aversion IV. U. S. Presidential Elections V. Demonstration DVD VI. Summary and Conclusions
Body Language Communication without words
Two Functions of Body Language Indicator Social Cue
Words are not enough in communication.
Words can be weak and need enrichment.
Words can be misleading (lying) and need correction.
BODY INDICATORS posture self-touching body movements smiles eye movements
Extremes in body language are red flags.
Body Language of Eye Movements
A little philosophy
When the eyes say one thing and the tongue another, the practiced person relies on the language of the first. Ralph Waldo Emerson
A little science
Negative Hedonia and Increased Blink Rate VariablesExamples StressProbing interview, failure, discussion of illness, embarrassment, listening to a tragic story, noise EffortInduced muscle tension FatigueTime on task, tryptophan PainElectric shock
Positive Hedonia and Decreased Blink Rate VariablesExamples RelaxationPost-hypnosis, self-initiated thoughts, daydreaming, meditative trance PleasureMethadone ContentmentDiscussion of positive feelings (towards spouse) AchievementFeeling of achievement in learning
Summary of Research: Blink Rate and Hedonia VariableBlink Rate Negative Hedonia Increase Positive Hedonia Decrease
Blink-Hedonia Hypothesis Eyeblink frequency is increased by unpleasant feelings and is decreased by pleasant feelings.
Eye Movements Indicators of stress
Eye Movements Eyeblinks Gaze avoidance
Blink Rates and Stress Levels While Talking on Camera Stress Level Rate (bpm) Low Moderate High Very High
Number of Blinks U.S. Presidential Election 2008 Blinks McCain 10,037 Obama 6,244
Video 1 Barack Obama John McCain Mitt Romney
U. S. Presidential Candidates 2008 Blink Rate McCain 140 Obama 60 Romney16
Blink Frequency and U. S. Presidential Elections Year Faster Blinker Loser 1960Nixon Nixon 1980Carter Carter 1984Mondale Mondale 1988Dukakis Dukakis 1992Bush Bush 1996Dole Dole 2000 Bush Gore 2004Kerry Kerry 2008McCain McCain
Conclusion Blink frequency is an accurate predictor of U. S. Presidential election outcomes.
Social Cue Hypothesis In social situations, blinking can influence how one person views the other.
Gaze Aversion LIAR Clemens 18 Obama 16 (1,630)
Video 2 Roger Clemens
Conclusions 1.Blink frequency is increased by negative hedonic states and is decreased by positive hedonic states. 2.The blink-hedonia hypothesis best explains research findings on blinking and psychological functions.
Q & A
Eyeblink Rates and Levels of Stress J. J. Tecce February 5, 1996 TalkingOn CameraStress LevelBlink Rate* NoNoLow YesNoLow-Moderate YesYesModerate-High YesYesHigh YesYesVery High71 – 140 * Numerical values represent blinks per minute. According to the hedonia hypothesis, higher blink rates reflect negative feelings, such as those that occur during greater mental effort (as in talking) or during stress (as in talking to a large audience, being on camera, or being asked an anxiety-producing question) (Tecce, 1992, McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology).