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Born to Win Because it is not easy to come by, because in the process of our striving for success, we have both our body and soul tempered, and we are.

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Presentation on theme: "Born to Win Because it is not easy to come by, because in the process of our striving for success, we have both our body and soul tempered, and we are."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Born to Win

3 Because it is not easy to come by, because in the process of our striving for success, we have both our body and soul tempered, and we are enlightened by the most valuable qualities of human beings: confidence, courage, love, fortitude, patience and sense of responsibilities. Why is success so dear to everybody?

4 Task 1Discussion Task 2Guessing Work Task 3A Song—Hero Task 4Video Clip Task 5Proverbs and Sayings Task 6 Listening Born to Win

5 Task 1Discussion What Is Success/winning? To be clear about what success is must be the first step to achieving success. Hold a discussion on the conceptions about success and try to give your own successful experiences.

6 Winning means being happy. Winning means being NO.1 or one of the best in your field.  Winning means being able to make great contribution to society.  Winning means being able to overcome great difficulties that others can’t.

7  Winning means making a lot of money.  Winning means doing what you enjoy and being good at it.  Winning means having good health and a happy family. Winning means that you can be the kind of person you want to be.

8 Generally, success is the realization of one’s hopes and justified ( 正当的 ) ideals. Under such a general notion ( 概念,定义 ), however, people have different understandings of success because the hopes and ideals they appreciate ( 欣赏,珍惜 ) vary from individual to individual ( 因人而 异 ). In my point of view, the definition of success includes four steps: 1) a goal to set; 2) challenges to be met; 3) the process of surmounting ( 克服 ) difficulties, and 4) the reward of success.

9 In the first step, one should set a goal that is worthy of pursuing and attainable with effort. Then success begins the moment one starts to pursue the goal. Following the goal- setting, there should be challenges and the process of surmounting difficulties in the pursuit of the goal. These two steps are essential because success acquires its value in accepting challenges, in overcoming difficulties and in enduring hardships.

10 Success is To laugh often and much; To earn the approbation of honest critics and endure the betrayal of false friends; To win the respect of intelligent people and the affection of children;

11 To find the best in others; To give of one's self; To leave the world a bit better, whether by a healthy child, a garden patch, or a redeemed social condition; To appreciate beauty;

12 To have played and laughed with enthusiasm and sung with exultation; To know even one life has breathed easier because you have lived - As to Ralph Waldo Emerson

13 Directions: Hold a discussion on these misconceptions about success and try to give your own successful experiences.

14 Once I’m successful , my troubles are over. You may be successful, but you may still have the ups and downs in your life. Enjoy the success you achieve and live each day as it comes.

15 It takes a lot of luck to be successful. Sure, it takes “some” luck to be successful. But it takes a lot more intelligence, diligence and knowledge

16 Some people can’t be successful because of the background, education, etc. Anybody can be successful. It’s a matter of wanting to, then doing what it takes to achieve it.

17 Task 2Guessing Work They all set models for the young. They are hardworking, brave and iron-willed. They all played an important part in the history of our human beings.

18 He was born in Atlanta on January 15, After the bus boycott, he was elected president and gained national prominence for his role in the campaign. On August 28, 1963, more than 250, 000 protesters gathered in Washington, D.C., where he delivered a famous speech. The speech is “I Have a Dream”. Martin Luther King.Jr. Great Civil rights leader Famous speech “I Have A Dream”

19 Born on Oct. 28, 1955, he grew up in Seattle with his two sisters. He discovered his interest in software and began programming computers at the age of 13. He left Harvard to devote his energy to Microsoft, a company he started in His foresight and his vision for personal computing have been central to the success of Microsoft and the software industry. William H. Gates Chairman and Chief Software Architect Microsoft Corporation

20 She was Britain’s first woman Prime Minister. She was born in 1925, the daughter of a grocer who was active in local politics, eventually becoming mayor of Grantham. As an undergraduate she was President of the Oxford University Conservative Association. Her writings include two volumes of memoirs, The Downing Street Years (1993) and The Path to Power (1995). Mrs. Margaret Thatcher Britain's first woman Prime Minister.

21 In the summer of 1920, he graduated from the Chongqing Preparatory School and went to France for further study. His famous saying is “No matter it is a white cat or a black cat, a cat that can catch rats is a good one.” In October 1934, when the Central Red Army was forced to begin the Long March, he took the post of chief secretary of the Central Committee. Deng Xiaoping Great leader Lead China into a new historical period. He was born on August 22, 1904, in the province of Sichuan.

22 Activity Now, divide the class into two groups to hold a competition. One group will offer some useful information about a famous person in the world for the other group to guess who the person is. The group getting more correct answers will be the winner.

23 Task 3 A Song—Hero Listen to a song Hero and try to answer questions:  Who is a true hero in your mind?  What qualities should a hero have?

24 There's a hero If you look inside your heart You don't have to be __ Of what you are There's an answer If you reach into your soul And the ___ that you know Will melt away Hero

25 And then a hero comes along With the ____ to carry on And you cast your fears aside And you know you can ____ So when you feel like hope is gone Look inside you and be strong And you'll finally see the truth That a hero lies in you Hero

26 It's a long road When you face the world alone No one reaches out a hand For you to hold You can find love If you search within yourself And the emptiness you felt Will ____

27 And then a hero comes along With the strength to carry on And you cast your ____ aside And you know you can survive So when you feel like hope is gone Look inside you and be strong And you'll finally see the truth That a hero lies in you Hero

28 Lord knows Dreams are hard to follow But don't let anyone Tear them away Hold on There will be tomorrow In time You'll find the way

29 Hero And then a hero comes along With the strength to carry on And you cast your fears aside And you know you can survive So when you feel like hope is gone Look inside you and be strong And you'll finally see the truth That a hero lies in you

30 Task 4Video Clip Enjoy the movie Brave Heart.

31 Video Clip

32 Where there is a will, there is a way. --- Thomas Edison 有志者,事竟成。 Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration. --- Edison

33 Task 5 Proverbs and Sayings  People often ask me if I know the secret of success, and if I could tell others how to make their dreams come true. My answer is, you do it by work. — Walt Disney 人们经常问我是否知道成功的诀窍,能否告之 如何使梦想成为现实, 我的回答是 : 身体力行。  Will, work and wait are the three pyramidal cornerstones for success. — Louis Pasteur 意志、工作和等待是成功金字塔的基石。

34 Progress is the activity of today and the assurance of tomorrow. —— Emerson 进步是今天的活动、明天的保证。 Genius only means hard-working all one's life Mendeleyev 天才只意味着终身不懈的努力。

35 Task 6 Listening The genius of Mozart

36 My son was hailed (向... 欢呼) by all of Vienna , not only as a great _______, but as one of the greatest and most controversial _________ of his time, but I saw it first. I nurtured that talent in him... I helped him become what he now was. pianist composers

37 On a ______ evening in February 1785, the elites in Vienna gathered to hear a new work from Australia's leading virtuoso pianist, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Importance of what lay in the _________ was known to only one man, Leopold Mozart, the composer's estranged ( 疏远 的 )father. stormy masterpiece

38 I believe Mozart is the greatest composer of all time. The popular view is that he was born a _______ straight from his mother's womb. But in my opinion, his _______ grew and developed from the love and losses during his brief 35 years. Life was the _____ force of this genius. genius brilliance driving

39 In this theory, I want to discover, helped by the true account of who knew him from first-hand, following his footsteps. How Mozart‘s own suffering and joy created music so powerful that he captivated( 迷住 ) the listeners today just as he did that to his first audience more than 200 years ago.

40 The History Of Coca-Cola

41 On the surface, it's just a soda pop, a cold drink you can buy almost anywhere. But it's come to be more than that. How did this soft drink, Coca-Cola, become an emotional touchdown for millions around the globe. Trace that story, and you'll trace a small part of the world story.

42 "Well, I think Coke's great success over the years was in ingratiating itself into every change of society." "I've often said to friend/ of mine that I could probably teach a course of American Social History and use nothing but advertising for Coca-Cola."

43 "During the Depression that you can always call a fellow and say ' Larry, meet me down for a Coco Cola. I wanna buy you a Coca- Cola.'" "It was with it, the effervescence of American society in the effervescence of its drink." "If you're having a bad time, if the country's having a bad time, if the world's having a bad time, it's OK, because there is still Coke." …

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47 Work in groups to answer the following questions. A winner is one who responds genuinely by being trustworthy and responsive, both as an individual and as a member of society. What does the word “winner” mean in this article?

48  A winner is genuine.  A winner is not afraid to do his own thinking and to use his own knowledge.  A winner is flexible.  A winner has a love for life.  A winner cares about the world and its people. What are the characteristics of a winner?

49  A loser lacks an ability to appropriately express himself through a full range of possible behavior.  A loser has difficulty giving and receiving love. What are the characteristics of a loser?

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51 Each person is born with what he needs to win at life.  A winner is one who responds genuinely by being trustworthy and responsive, both as an individual and as a member of a society.  A loser is one who fails to respond genuinely. Introduction (Para. 1)The meanings of “winner” and “loser” (Para. 2)Few people are winners and losers all the time. (Para. 3)

52 Characteristics of a winner  A winner is genuine.  A winner is independent in thinking.  A winner is flexible.  A winner has a love for life.  A winner cares about the world and its people. Winners (Para. 4—7)

53  He is afraid to try new things.  A loser has difficulty giving and receiving love.  poor nutrition, cruelty, unhappy relationships, disease, continuing disappointments, and inadequate physical care, etc. Losers (Para. 8—10) Possible causesCharacteristics of a loser

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55 1. When we refer to a person as a winner, we do not mean one who defeats the other person by dominating and making him lose. (Line 6) When we refer to… as…, we don’t mean… 当我们将 ······ 看作 ······ 的时候,我们并不是 说 ······

56 When we refer to a person as a winner, we do not mean one who makes someone else lose. 当我们将某人称作胜者时,我们并非指他是一个致使他 人一败涂地的人。 When we refer to the computer as the dominant machine in the future, we do not mean they will take the place of human beings. 当我们认为计算机是未来的主宰机 器时,我们并不是说它们将会代替 人类。

57 当我把学习看作是大学期间的主要任务时,我并不是说 我们就不必和社会接触。 When I refer to _________________________, I do not mean ________________________________. 当我们把互利作为发展国与国之间关系的基础时,我们 并不是说可以为了部分国家的利益而损害世界和平。 When we refer to _____________________________________ ___________________________, we do not mean that _______ ___________________________, we do not mean that ______________________________________________________. 请完成下面的句子: study as the chief task in college we have no necessity to contact society mutual benefits for both sides as the base to develop relations between nations we shall sacrifice the world peace for benefits of only some nations

58 当我们把一个人称作是成功者时,我们所指 的并不是那种通过优势控制他人、令其失败 而获得成功的人。 1. When we refer to a person as a winner, we do not mean one who defeats the other person by dominating and making him lose. (Line 6)

59 2. Without guilt he enjoys his own accomplishments. Without envy he enjoys the accomplishments of others. (Line 30) Without… he does sth.. Without… he does sth. 没有 ······ 的时候,某人 ······ ;没有 ······, 某 人 ······ 这两句话既是排比,又有对比的意思。 并且因为押头韵,读起来琅琅上口,使 文章增色不少。

60 Without you I cannot live. Without me you feel the life is pale. 没有你,我无法生活;没有我, 你觉得生活苍白无趣。 Without money I tell myself to work hard to make more. Without time I dream to pay for freedom. 没有钱的时候,我告诫自己努 力工作挣更多的钱;没有时间 的时候,我又梦想着用钱来买 自由。

61 他能享受自己的成功而不感到愧疚,他也 能欣赏他人的成功而不感到妒忌。 2. Without guilt he enjoys his own accomplishments. Without envy he enjoys the accomplishments of others. (Line 30)

62 3. Although people are born to win, they are also born totally dependent on their environment. (Line 36) … they are born dependent on… 一句中, dependent on their environment 是主语 they 的补足语。 主语的补足语,通常位于主语之前或谓语 动词及分词之后,补充说明主语。

63 请看下面的例子: 1) 主语补语位于主语之前,后有逗号。 Tired and sleepy, I went to bed. 2) 有时位于主语之后,前后皆有逗号。 Chen, only 1.30 meters tall, won the first prize. 3) 位于谓语动词之后。 He died young. He was found died. 4) 除形容词外,名词、数词、不定式、分词、介词短 语、从句也可作主语补足语。 语、从句也可作主语补足语。 过去分词短语作主语补足语 He came home quite changed. 过去分词短语作主语补足语

64 即使人们生来注定会成功,但也是生来 就要完全依赖于周围环境的。 3. Although people are born to win, they are also born totally dependent on their environment. (Line 36)

65 4. Somewhere along the line losers begin to avoid becoming independent. (Line 38) avoid doing 英语中有些动词只能跟动名词作宾语, avoid 的用法就是这样。 avoid 后只能跟名词 或动名词,而不能跟不定式。 跟动名词作宾语的动词还有:mind, finish, enjoy, celebrate, advocate, suggest, delay, quit, forgive, admit, tolerate, escape, consider, give up, be capable of doing, have trouble/difficult/a problem + doing, succeed in doing, keep/prevent... from doing, cannot help/cannot help but do, keep (on), spend + n. + doing, be skilled/skillful at/in doing

66 You must avoid giving any unnecessary information. 你应该尽量避免提供不必要的信息。 China is to avoid experiencing big ups and downs in economy in the coming year. 中国将在未来一年里避免经济有大的起伏。

67 Professors should ________ repeating in lectures material that is in the textbook. A) refuse B) prohibit C) prevent D) avoid Tryon was extremely angry, but cool-headed enough to ________ storming into the boss’s office. A) prevent B) prohibit C) turn D) avoid D D

68 在这一过程的某个时候,失败者开始逃避 独立。 4. Somewhere along the line losers begin to avoid becoming independent. (Line 38)

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70 1. unique (Line 1, Para. 1) adj. being the only one of its type 唯一的,独一无二的;独特的,无双的 唯一的,独一无二的;独特的,无双的 完成下面的句子。 Drug abuse is by no means __________________________. (这一地区特有的问题) _________________ because all the others like it were destroyed. (那座建筑很独特) That building is unique That building is unique a unique problem to this region

71 unique opportunity 千载难逢的机会 unique ability 独有的能力 unique work of art 独一无二的艺术作品 unique talent 无与伦比的才能 unique wish 唯一的愿望 常用搭配

72 名词形式: uniqueness (Line 15, Para. 4) 唯一;独一无二 唯一;独一无二 It is the ____________________________________ for which he will be long time remembered. “ 猫王 ” 艾尔维斯 · 普莱斯利独一无二的演唱风 格 “ 猫王 ” 艾尔维斯 · 普莱斯利独一无二的演唱风 格将使他长久地被(世人)怀念。 uniqueness of Elvis Presley’s singing style

73 2. potential (Line 3, Para. 1) 2. potential (Line 3, Para. 1) n. possibility for developing or being developed 潜力;潜能 潜力;潜能 Athens Olympic gold medalists Li Ting and Sun Tiantian are___________________________________. Taiwanese pop queen Amei Chang (Zhang Huimei) ________________________________ when she was very young. 雅典奥运会金牌得主李婷和孙甜甜是拥有巨大潜力 的年轻网球运动员。 young tennis players with great potential 台湾流行天后张惠妹在很小的时候就显示出了歌手 的潜力。 showed potential for becoming a singer

74 adj. that may happen or become so, although not actually existing at present 潜在的;可能的 actually existing at present 潜在的;可能的 那款能听 MP3 音乐的手机拥有巨大的潜在市场。 那款能听 MP3 音乐的手机拥有巨大的潜在市场。 That type of MP3-capable mobile phone _______________________. Solar power is a source of energy. 太阳能是潜在的能量来源。 has a large potential market potential

75 3. refer to  as (Line 6, Para. 2) mention or speak about someone or something 把 ······ 称作 演讲人把他称为一位正在崛起的政界人物。 The speaker referred to him as an up-and-coming politician. Chinese pop music fans _______ Hong Kong SAR veteran singers Liu Dehua, Zhang Xueyou, Li Ming and Guo Fucheng ______________________. 中国的流行乐迷把香港地区资深歌手刘德华、张学 友、黎明和郭富城称为 “ 四大天王 ” 。 refer to as “Four Heavenly Kings”

76 有能力的领导人能以人格的力量支配他人。 Capable leaders can dominate others by force of character. With remarkable skills and great confidence, Swiss Roger Federer can ____________________________________________. 因为拥有出色的球技和强大的信心,瑞士人罗 杰 费德勒成为当今竞争异常激烈的男子网坛的 统领者。 4. dominate (Line 7, Para. 2) v. have or exercise control or power over 支配;统治;控制 支配;统治;控制 名词形式: domination dominate today’s ultra-competitive men’s tennis world

77 她对他所说的确实感到吃惊。 她对他所说的确实感到吃惊。 She was genuinely surprised about what he said. The government’s new higher taxes are genuinely beginning to bite. 政府提高税收的新措施真正地开始引起不满了。 5. genuinely (Line 8, Para. 2) adv. sincerely, truly, honestly 真诚地;确实,真正地 adv. sincerely, truly, honestly 真诚地;确实,真正地

78 形容词形式: genuine 形容词形式: genuine adj. real, not false; sincere; frank adj. real, not false; sincere; frank 1) 真的,名副其实的 ; 2) 真诚的,真实的 那件夹克是用真皮制成的。 That jacket is made of genuine leather. 他真诚的演讲感动了所有的听众。 His genuine speaking touched all the listeners. genuine gold/friend/support/painting 真正的 ······ genuine passion / affection / pride / desire / hatred / love / regret / enthusiasm 真实的 ······ genuine passion / affection / pride / desire / hatred / love / regret / enthusiasm 真实的 ······

79 6. capacity (Line 12, Para. 3) n. 1) the ability to do a particular thing 能力,才智 n. 1) the ability to do a particular thing 能力,才智 她的接受能力很强。 She has a mind of great capacity. He is a man with a prodigious ( 大得惊人 ) capacity of alcohol. 他是个酒量很大的人。 那本英文原版小说远远超过了那些非英语专业学生的 (理解)能力。 那本英文原版小说远远超过了那些非英语专业学生的 (理解)能力。 That original novel in English is far beyond the capacity of those non-English major students.

80 2) the amount that something can hold or contain 容量,容积,容纳力 容量,容积,容纳力 The assembly hall was filled to capacity. That multimedia classroom. 那间多媒体教室能够容纳 100 名学生(同时上课)。 大会堂里挤满了人。 has a seating capacity of 100 students

81 7. capability (Line 4, Para. 1) n. the fact or quality of being able to do something n. the fact or quality of being able to do something 能力,才能 能力,才能 ability, capability 与 capacity  ability 指某一方面的才能,后通常接不定式。 e.g. That boy has the ability to write novels. e.g. That boy has the ability to write novels. 那个男孩有写小说的能力。 那个男孩有写小说的能力。  capability 着重强调人的才干,其后可与 of/for doing 连 用。复数形式 capabilities 表示潜在的能力或尚未开发出来 的能力。

82 e.g. As an excellent table tennis player, Chinese Wang Hao has the capability of winning the gold medal in the 2008 Beijing the capability of winning the gold medal in the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Olympic Games. 作为一名优秀的乒乓球运动员,中国的王皓有能力在 2008 年 作为一名优秀的乒乓球运动员,中国的王皓有能力在 2008 年 北京奥运会上夺取金牌。 北京奥运会上夺取金牌。  capacity 常指学习、理解能力或较全面的才能,其后可接 to do / of doing / for doing 。 I appreciated his capacity of/for making friends. e.g. I appreciated his capacity of/for making friends. 我欣赏他的交友能力。

83 请选择 ability, capability, capacity 的适当形式填空。  That kid shows an unbelievable _________ for learning chemistry. chemistry.  I believe you have the ________ to finish the task.  That cartoon book goes beyond the ________ of preschool readers. readers.  Those psychologists compared the _________ of two teenagers and concluded that the first was smarter. But teenagers and concluded that the first was smarter. But the second one still had some ________ for improvement. the second one still had some ________ for improvement. capacity ability capacity capabilities capability

84 8. evaluate (Line 25, Para. 5) v. calculate or judge the value or degree of v. calculate or judge the value or degree of 评价;评估,估计 评价;评估,估计 ___________________, all the connoisseurs drew the same conclusion that the pottery was an antique of Ming Dynasty. 经过仔细的鉴定,所有鉴定家的结论都是那件陶器是一 件明代的古物。 The head coach will _________________________________ before deciding which player could take part in the upcoming Olympic Games. 主教练在决定由哪名运动员参加即将到来的奥运会之前 会充分估计各方面的重要因素。 After careful evaluating evaluate all the key factors very carefully

85 9. flexible (Line 28, Para. 6) adj. 1) that can change or be changed to be suitable adj. 1) that can change or be changed to be suitable for new needs 灵活的,可变通的 for new needs 灵活的,可变通的 It is really necessary for that Oscar-winning actress to _____________________ to handle all kinds of social intercourses. 那位奥斯卡获奖女演员非常有必要设计一 份灵活的时间表来应对各种社会应酬。 那位奥斯卡获奖女演员非常有必要设计一 份灵活的时间表来应对各种社会应酬。 A wise political leader should be flexible in dealing with various economic issues. A wise political leader should be flexible in dealing with various economic issues. 有智慧的政治领导人应该采取灵活变通的 政策解决各种经济问题。 design a flexible schedule

86 2) that can bend or be bent easily 有弹性的,柔韧的 跳舞的人需要有柔软的身体。 跳舞的人需要有柔软的身体。 弹性塑料管 弹性塑料管 灵活的计划 / 安排 灵活的计划 / 安排 温顺的性格 温顺的性格 软线 软线 弹性工作时间 弹性工作时间 灵活的法则 / 原则 灵活的法则 / 原则 灵活机动的战术 灵活机动的战术 灵活的决策体系 灵活的决策体系 Dancers need to be flexible. flexible plastic tubing flexible plans/arrangements a flexible character flexible cord flexible working hours flexible rules/principles flexible strategy flexible decision-making systems

87 10. call for (Line 29, Para.6) need or deserve 需要,值得 need or deserve 需要,值得 To become an excellent golfer as Tiger Woods _____________________. 想成为一个像泰格 · 伍兹那样优秀的高 尔夫球选手需要天赋与悟性。 想成为一个像泰格 · 伍兹那样优秀的高 尔夫球选手需要天赋与悟性。 West Point, the most famous military academy of the United States, _______________________ _________________. 美国最著名的军事学府西点军校需要具备使命 感的年轻人加入。 美国最著名的军事学府西点军校需要具备使命 感的年轻人加入。 calls for talent and savvy calls for those young people with a true vocation

88 11. contribute (Line 41, Para.8) v. help in causing a situation, event, or condition v. help in causing a situation, event, or condition 有助于,促成 有助于,促成 提示词造句: 提示词造句: psychological pressure, failure Great psychological pressure contributed to his failure in the English Speaking Competition. international matches, the maturity of one’s skills and state of mind Taking part in international matches regularly will contribute to the maturity of young players’ skills and state of mind.

89 Both of the two candidates made use of various means to ___________________. 两位候选人使用各种手段来影响选民的意志。 一些政治人物在幕后 (behind the curtain) 间接操纵股票 市场。 Some political figures indirectly manipulated the stock market behind the curtain. Some political figures indirectly manipulated the stock market behind the curtain. manipulate voters’ will 12. manipulate (Line 47, Para.10 ) v. control or influence for one’s own purposes v. control or influence for one’s own purposes 操纵,控制,影响 操纵,控制,影响 名词形式: manipulation

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91 每个人天生就是独特的。 一般人 一般人 一个有创造力的并富有 成效的人 它是个程度的问题。 它是个程度的问题。 他 ······ 的机会更大。 Each human being is born as something unique. a normal person a normal person a creatively productive person a creatively productive person It’s a matter of degree. His chances are greater for…

92 他是灵活多变的。 他是灵活多变的。 他热爱生活。 他热爱生活。 不断的失望 他的低能阻碍了他。 He is flexible. He is flexible. He has a love for life. He has a love for life. continuing disappointments continuing disappointments He was held back by his low capacity.

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95 以下介绍省略译法中的非人称代 词或强调句中代词 it 的译法。

96 Outside it was pitch dark and it was raining cats and dogs. 外面一团漆黑,大雨倾盆。(非人称代词) He glanced at his watch; it was 7:15. 他一看表,七点一刻了。 (非人称代词) It was only then that I began to have doubts whether my story would ever be told. 只是在那时,我才开始怀疑自己的经历究竟能 不能公诸于众。(强调句)

97 英语句子中有一些短语重 复出现,从修辞角度考虑,可 按情况作适当省略。

98 And that was the terrible thing that happened. 这事真是要命。 There is no month in the whole year, in which nature wears a more beautiful appearance than in the month of October. 一年之中,大自然的美景莫过于金秋十月。 And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed there. 耶稣说完这些比喻,就离开了那里。

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101 语篇连贯 ( 一 ) 学生作文反映出的语篇不连贯错误类型 : 1. 语义不连贯。思路脱轨,或时时转轨,东拉西扯写得很 散,致使主题不突出。生拉硬扯、语义不明的句子使读 者难以把握作者应有的思路。 3. 缺乏必要的逻辑连贯。内容排列杂乱无章,显得前言不搭 后语,令人十分费解。 2. 衔接不合理。段与段或句与句之间过渡不自然,呆板生 硬,使人难以了解学生真正的写作意图。

102 1. 利用提供的提纲、提示理清思路,确定段落间的 连贯。靠适当选择与合理淘汰素材,紧扣中心思 想或主题句,使语义具有整体一致性。 2. 在英语提纲适当位置标明可以使用的衔接手段, 如正确的关联词,使句与句、层次与层次、段落 与段落之间的衔接合理。 3. 辨明逻辑关系,分清内容层次。用过程、因果、 综述、对比和比较等组织方法,也可以利用时间、 空间顺序等写作技巧。

103 在写下面这篇作文时,你怎样注意连贯与衔接? Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic: My Definition of Success. You should write at least 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese: 1. 我对成功的定义; 2. 对成功定义的详细阐述; 3. 小结。

104 Success is a magic word, and everyone is in constant pursuit of ( 不断追求 ) success. But what exactly is success? Generally, success is the realization of one’s hopes and justified ( 正 当的 ) ideals. Under such a general notion ( 概 念,定义 ), however, people have different understandings of success because the hopes and ideals they appreciate ( 欣赏,珍惜 ) vary from individual to individual ( 因人而异 ). In my point of view, the definition of success includes four steps: 1) a goal to set; 2) challenges to be met; 3) the process of surmounting ( 克服 ) difficulties, and 4) the reward of success. My Definition of Success

105 In the first step, one should set a goal that is worthy of pursuing and is attainable with effort. Then success begins the moment one starts to pursue the goal. Following the goal-setting, there should be challenges and the process of surmounting difficulties in the pursuit of the goal. These two steps are essential because success acquires its value in accepting challenges, in overcoming difficulties and in enduring hardships.

106 For instance, a person who inherits ( 继承 ) a huge amount of money from his parents cannot be called a successful person because there are no difficulties or hardships involved in his achieving wealth. The reward of success—the final step— is inseparable from the process of surmounting frustrations ( 挫折 ).

107 This is my definition of success. However, success is just like a multi-faceted ( 多面的 ) diamond. Others may define it from other aspects. I will stick to my own definition, following the four- step path and holding the belief that I will become a potentially successful person in the near future.

108 I. [ TOEFL 作文题目 ] Directions: You will have thirty minutes to plan and write an essay on the topic given below. Use the first few minutes to read the topic carefully and think about what kind of essay you will write. You may use the space immediately below the essay topic to make notes. Write your essay on the lined pages that follow. You will have enough space if you write on every line and keep your handwriting to a reasonable size. Someone thinks that playing a game is fun only when you win. Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Use specific reasons to support your answer.

109 II. [ IELTS 作文题目 ] Topic: Nowadays it is believed that one cannot obtain the necessary qualifications for success through studies at universities or similar academic institutions. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion? Use your own experience and knowledge to support your arguments. You should spend no more than 40 minutes on this task. You should write a minimum of 250 words. You should use your own ideas, knowledge and experience to support your arguments with examples and relevant evidence.

110 III.[ GRE 作文题目 ] When Ida McAllister ran for mayor of Lake City four years ago, she failed to win even 30 percent of the vote. But since then, McAllister has made public her commitment to environmental causes. She would be wise, therefore, to announce her intention to close all Lake City parks to automobile traffic, thus following the example of the former mayor of Plainsville, Alecia Yu. On the recommendation of a small group of concerned citizens, Mayor Yu prohibited automobile traffic in all Plainsville parks, and therefore was credited with solving the pollution problem and improving the quality of life in Plainsville. This action would have great appeal to the citizens of Lake City, most of whom participate in the community’s recycling program, and would guarantee McAllister’s success in her current quest to be Lake City’s new mayor.

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