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2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 The Earth’s ecosystems L3 English in Natural Science 自然科学の英語.

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Presentation on theme: "2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 The Earth’s ecosystems L3 English in Natural Science 自然科学の英語."— Presentation transcript:

1 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 The Earth’s ecosystems L3 English in Natural Science 自然科学の英語

2 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Ecosystems Definition: any system where there is interaction between organisms and their environment. Two components –Biocenosis: all organisms –Biotope: physical medium (land, water, soil, air, etc) Species linked by a food web –Exchange matter and energy Size –Microecosystems: soil, bark of a tree –Mesoecosystems: forest, lake –Macroecosystems: valley, region, ocean

3 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Niche Species occupy a limited ‘niche’ –“multidimensional hypervolume in which the species can maintain a viable population” (Grinnell, 1914; Hutchinson, 1957) –Adaptation to environment Climate (latitude, altitude) Chemical factors (air, soil, water) Biotic factors: other species Factors determining the niche –Resources: food, light, nutrients –Other: space, time, body size Generalist = wide, tolerant Specialist = restricted, sensitive

4 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Species co-existence Competition –Two species cannot share the same niche  either winner or loser  exclude each other time food space A B A B B Symbiosis –Sharing the same niche  agreement –Mutualism, commensalism (Rhizobium nodules and legume plants)

5 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Decomposers Food web Producers Consumers Inorganic matter Losses Respiration Work Heat Input Solar energy Matter

6 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Vegetation Consumers Producers Decomposers Phytofagous Herbivorous Predators Scavengers Energy loss Increased entropy Reduced biomass Terrestrial pyramid

7 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Energy loss Increased entropy Reduced biomass Aquatic inverted pyramid Phytoplankton Zooplankton Predators Superpredators Scavengers Detritivorous

8 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Communities Assemblages of species –Same taxon –Avoid competition Different niches Composition –Dominant species –Rare species –Keystone species ‘essential functional role’ –Immigrants ‘adapt, coexist or leave’ –Dependent species Symbiotic Parasites Species% cover Sorghastrum natans24 Panicum virginatum12 Andropogon gerardi9 Ailphium laciniatum9 Desmanthus illioensis6 Bouteloua curtipendula6 Andropogon scoparius6 Helianthus maximiliana6 Schrankia nuttallii6 20 additional species (average 0.8% each) 16 Source: Rice, E.L. 1952. Ecology 33: 112-116 Tall-grass prairie (Oklahoma,USA)

9 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Kinds of vegetation Forbs, herbs Grasses Ferns Epiphytes Emergent Floating Submerged Algae SHAPE Trees Shrubs Herbaceous Mosses Lichens Aquatic plants

10 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Ecosystem types of the World Terrestrial - Aquatic

11 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Terrestrial ecosystems Biomes: large terrestrial community units dominated by plants Six major biomes in the World –Desert –Tundra –Grasslands –Shrubland –Savanna - woodland –Forests Defined in relation to climatic patterns

12 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Iceage Greenhouse

13 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Deserts Rainfall: 30 o C Vegetation type: grasses, forbs, shrubs Types: cold (mountain); hot Area: 30 m Km 2 (20.5%)

14 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Tundra Rainfall:< 1000 mm Temperature: -15 to -5 o C Vegetation type: mosses, lichens, grasses, shrubs Types: arctic (N pole); alpine (mountains) Area: 25 m Km 2 (17%)

15 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Grassland Rainfall:250-600 mm Temperature: 2.5 to 15 o C Vegetation type: grasses + forbs = pasture Types: steppe (short); prairie; tropical (tall) Area: 12 m Km 2 (8.2%)

16 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Shrubland Rainfall:250-600 mm Temperature: 2.5 to 30 o C Vegetation type: shrubs, grasses, forbs Types: Mediterranean; temperate; montane; tropical; scrubland (short) Area: 4.3 m Km 2 (3%)

17 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Savanna Rainfall:600-1500 mm Temperature: 5 to 30 o C Vegetation type: trees, shrubs, grasses, forbs Types: woodland (temperate); tropical Area: 25 m Km 2 (17%)

18 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Forest Rainfall:600-4500 mm Temperature: > -5 o C Vegetation: all types Types: taiga; temperate; subtropical; tropical evergreen (perennial); deciduous; mangroves Area: 31 m Km 2 (21%)

19 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Agro-ecosystems Ecosystems that produce for human consumption Area: 16 m km 2 (11% of total land area) Two types: cropland (40%); grazing land (rangeland, 60%)

20 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Biome transition Polar icecap Tundra Boreal forest (conifers, mixed) Temperate forest (deciduous) Mediterranean forest (evergreen) Shrubland Desert Savanna/grassland Tropical forest cold warm

21 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Mountains (European Alps) Continental (Australian bush)

22 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Aquatic ecosystems Dominated by animals of all kinds Freshwater (3 m Km 2 ; 2%) –Lentic: lakes, ponds –Lotic: streams, rivers –Wetlands: marshes Saltwater –Estuaries –Coastal –Coral reefs –Oceans Shallow: continental shelf (benthic) Deep: pelagic, abyssal

23 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Oceanic ecosystems light darkness

24 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Succession Ecosystems are dynamic entities, not static Change in time: from simple to complex grassland  shrubland  forest Factors… climate, nutrients, growth, competition, dispersal

25 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Succession patterns Primary: start from scratch, ‘bare soil’ Secondary: recovery after damage (I.e. natural disasters, human impact) Trends Increase total biomass/area Increase biodiversity  more niches available  complex structure T I M E

26 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Secondary succession Natural disasters –Fire –Drought –Flood –Volcanic eruption –Diseases Human impacts –Deforestation –Desertification –Grazing –Farming Resilience of organisms Adaptations –Fire: Banksia sp. cones –Drought: short life cycles (annual grasses, freshwater plankton) dormancy (fungi, seeds) –Flooding: mangroves Renewal of ecosystems –Recovery –Re-colonization –Re-building biome

27 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Recovery Natural disasters give advantage to best adapted species Land management: fire favours grass  livestock

28 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Successional changes (15,000 yr) glaciers ICE SHEET

29 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 Tropical forests Last Ice Age sea level 100 m down boreal forests >> tropical forest Currently Less land area  sea level UP boreal forests = tropical forest

30 2006 自然科学の英語 -ENS-L3 References Mitchell B. Rambler, Lynn Margulis, Rene Fester. 1989. Global ecology : towards a science of the biosphere / 園芸 - 緑地植物学 call 460 Odum, E.P. 1993. Ecology and our endangered life-support systems / 園芸 - 応用動物昆虫学 B-226 Tokeshi, M. 1999. Species coexistence: ecological and evolutionary perspectives / B-207

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