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Technology-based Industries & the Management of Innovation

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1 Technology-based Industries & the Management of Innovation
OUTLINE Competitive advantage in technology-intensive Industries Appropriating the returns to innovation Strategies to exploit innovation Alternative approaches Timing: to lead or to follow? Managing risk Competing for standards Implementing technology strategy The conditions for creativity From invention to innovation 1

2 The Development of Technology: From Knowledge Generation to Diffusion
IMITATION Supply side Basic Knowledge Invention Innovation Diffusion Demand side ADOPTION 3

3 The Development of Technology: Lags Between Knowledge Generation and Commercialization
BASIC FIRST PRODUCT IMITATION KNOWLEDGE PATENTS LAUNCH Xerography late 19th and early 20th centuries Jet Engines 17th-- early 20th centuries Fuzzy logic 1960’s controllers 4

4 Imitators and other “followers”
Appropriation of Value:- How are the Benefits from Innovation Distributed? Customers Suppliers Innovator Imitators and other “followers” 8

5 The Profitability of Innovation
Value of the innovation Legal protection Complementary resources Imitability of the technology Lead time Profits from Innovation Innovator’s ability to appropriate the value of the innovation 7

6 Legal Protection of Intellectual Property
Patents —exclusive rights to a new product, process, substance or design. Copyrights —exclusive rights to artistic, dramatic, and musical works. Trademarks — exclusive rights to words, symbols or other marks to distinguish goods and services; trademarks are registered with the Patent Office. Trade Secrets — protection of chemical formulae, recipes, and industrial processes. Also, private contracts between firms and between a firm and its employees can restrict the transfer of technology and know how. 9

7 Complementary Resources
Distribution Manufacturing Finance Service Core technological know-how Complementary technologies Marketing Other Other Bargaining power of owners of complementary resources depends upon whether complementary resources are generic or specialized.

8 Lead Time If rivals can imitate-- time lag is the major advantage of the innovator. But maintaining lead-time advantage requires continuous innovation Lead time is reinforced by learning effects 13

9 U.S. Managers’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Different Mechanisms for Protecting Innovation
Processes Products Patents to prevent duplication Patents to secure royalty income Secrecy Lead time Moving quickly down the learning curve Sales or service efforts 1 = not at all effective 7 = very effective Source: Levin, Klevorick, Nelson & Winter. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1987. 11

10 Alternative Strategies for Exploiting Innovation
Outsourcing certain functions Strategic Alliance Joint Venture Internal Commercialization Licensing Limits investment, but dependence on suppliers & partners Benefits of flexibility; risks of informal structure Shares investment & risk. Risk of partner conflict & culture clash Biggest risks & benefits. Allows complete control Small risk, but limited returns also (unless patent position very strong Risk & Return Allows outside resources & capabilities To be accessed Few Permits pooling of the resources/capabilities of more than one firm Substantial resource requirements CompetingResources Konica licensing its digital camera to HP Pixar’s movies (e.g. “Toy Story”) marketed & distributed by Disney. Apple and Sharp build the “Newton” PDA Microsoft and NBC formed MSNBC TI’s development of Digital Signal Processing Chips Examples

11 The Comparative Success of Leaders and Followers
PRODUCT INNOVATOR FOLLOWER WINNER Jet Airliners De Havilland (Comet) Boeing (707) Follower Float glass Pilkington Corning Leader X-Ray Scanner EMI General Electric Follower Office P.C. Xerox IBM Follower VCRs Ampex/Sony Matsushita Follower Diet Cola R.C. Cola Coca Cola Follower Instant Cameras Polaroid Kodak Leader Pocket Calculator Bowmar Texas Instruments Follower Microwave Oven Raytheon Samsung Follower Plain Paper Copiers Xerox Canon Not clear Fiber Optic Cable Corning many companies Leader Video Games Players Atari Nintendo//Sony Followers Disposable Diapers Proctor & Gamble Kimberly-Clark Leader Web browser Netscape Microsoft Follower PDA Psion, Apple Palm Follower MP3 music players Diamond Multimedia Sony (&others) Followers

12 The Strategic Management of Technology:- To Lead or to Follow
Key considerations: Is innovation appropriable and protectable against imitation? If so, advantages in leadership. The role of complementary resources Followers may be able to avoid investing in complementary resources due to better established industry infrastructure Firms possessing complementary resources have the luxury of waiting Is owning/ controlling industry standard critical to competitive advantage? if so, advantage in being a leader.

13 Uncertainty & Risk Management in Tech-based Industries
Selection process for standards and dominant designs emerge is complex and difficult to predict, e.g. future of 3G Technological uncertainty Sources of uncertainty Market uncertainty Customer acceptance and adoption rates of innovations notoriously difficult to predict, e.g. PC, Xerox copier, Walkman Cooperating with lead users early identification of customer requirements assistance in new product development Strategies for managing risk Limiting risk exposure —avoid major capital commitments (e.g. lease don’t buy) —outsource —alliances to access other firms’ resources & capabilities —keep debt low Flexibility —keep options open —use speed of response to adapt quickly to new information —learn from mistakes 14

14 The Emergence of Standards
Emergence of a dominant design paradigm Model T in autos IBM 360 in mainframes Douglas DC3 in passenger aircraft Emergence of technical standards Emerge in industries where there are network extremities Entrenchment of the dominant designs and technical standards Learning effects: incremental improvement of the dominant design Switching costs Need for coordinated action by multiple players 5

15 Sources of Network Externalities
User linkages, e.g. Telephone systems—only value of telephone is connection to other users Video game consoles—same platform allows users to exchange games and play interactively On-line auction—value of auction depends on number of buyers and sellers participating Also, social identification—listening to same music, watching same TV shows, wearing same clothes in order to conform Availability of complementary products, e.g. Most PC applications software written for Windows, not Mac. In economy autos, easier to get parts and repair for a Ford Focus than for a Maruti or Proton Economizing on switching costs, e.g. In suites of office software, users of Microsoft Office more likely to avoid switching costs that users of Lotus SmartSuite when they move jobs 5

16 Companies that Own Technical Standards
COMPANY PRODUCT CATEGORY STANDARD Microsoft/Intel PC operating systems “Wintel” (Windows OS & Intel *86 series processors Matsushita Videocassette recorders VHS system Iomega High capacity PC disk drives Zip drives Intuit Software for on-line financial transactions Quicken Rockwell/ 3Com 56K modems V90 Dolby Laboratories Sound processing systems Dolby sound reduction Qualcomm Digital wireless telecom signals CDMA Adobe Systems Common file format for creating and viewing documents Acrobat 5

17 Competing for Standards: Value Appropriation vs. Market Acceptance
Maximize value appropriation Maximize market acceptance VHS Betamax LOOSE TIGHT Mac IBM-PC

18 Fighting Standards Wars
Determine the potential for standards emergence—analyze network externalities Building a bandwagon—enlist partners (requires licensing & sharing returns from the technology) Pre-empting the market—Build user base quickly: May require sharing benefits with consumers (penetration pricing) Manage expectations (the Microsoft advantage) What if you’re a loser? (a) ensure compatibility (b) go for niche How can the winner sustaining the standard? --Don’t fall behind on technology --Ensure backward compatibility --Meet threat of disruptive technology by offering customers a migration path --Reinforce standard with other resources—e.g. brand 5

19 The Conditions for Creativity: “Operating” and “Innovating” Organizations

20 Strategy Implementation: Invention to Innovation
While invention depends upon creativity, successful innovation requires integrating new knowledge with multiple business functions. Need to link R&D departments with other functions (the problem of Xerox’s PARC) The role of cross-functional new product development teams as vehicles for integration The role of product champions--in achieving integration and counteracting organizational inertia. 20

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