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SPORT IN THE ANCIENT WORLD AND OUR EUROPEAN HERITAGE.

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Presentation on theme: "SPORT IN THE ANCIENT WORLD AND OUR EUROPEAN HERITAGE."— Presentation transcript:

1 SPORT IN THE ANCIENT WORLD AND OUR EUROPEAN HERITAGE

2 EARLY CULTURES Egypt –Warriors trained –Dancing was valued in religion China –Only the military class valued physical development India –Yoga, a system of meditation and regulated breathing

3 HOMERIC ERA (prehistoric time to 776 B.C.) Greek Poet, Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey— describes the early athletic competitions. Aristocratic sports—warrior skills displayed in sports by noblemen –Individual events only –Informal –Spontaneous –Only amateurs

4 HOMERIC ERA (con’t) Events Chariot racingBoxing Wrestling Javelin Foot racing Discus Development of the Greek Ideal –Man of Action—sports skills and military prowess –Man of Wisdom—development of mind and philosophical abilities –Stressed unity of Man of Action and Man of Wisdom –Emulated the Greek gods who were believed to have superior intellect and physical capabilities

5 SPARTAN ERA (776 B.C. to 371 B.C.) Early years they had freedoms and cultural activities Man of Action later took over with an emphasis on military supremacy State controlled life and education –Girls were trained at home in gymnastics—to bear healthy children –Boys--Raised at home until age seven and trained by mothers

6 Between ages 7-20 males stayed in barracks training for military; were in companies of 64 boys with one leader; discipline was severe Between ages males were in the military At 30 years, males became citizens and married Between ages 30-50, males trained boys in barracks Narrow-minded society In the early years, the Olympic Games were dominated by the Spartans (46 of 81 victories)

7 EARLY ATHENIAN ERA (776 B.C. to 480 B.C.) Developed into a liberal, progressive, and democratic city-state Athenian education –Moral (character) training at home for both girls and boys –Girls at home received no educational and practically no physical training

8 –Boys were raised at home until 7, but sometimes went with father to the gymnasiums –If could afford formal education Palaestra —place for physical training, sometimes called a wrestling school (the teacher was called a paidotribe) Didascaleum —place for intellectual training, sometimes call a music school

9 Males could become citizens at 18 years Between ages males were subject to military service (always had to be ready for war) Citizens—physical work-outs and intellectual (philosophical) discussions at the state-furnished gymnasiums

10 PANHELLENIC FESTIVALS (776 B.C to A.D. 400) Greek Athletic (Crown) Festivals Festival Place Honored Wreath Interval Founded OlympicOlympiaZeusolive4 776 B.C. PythianDelphi Apollobay B.C. IsthmianIsthmia Poseidonpine2 582 B.C. NemeanNemea Zeus wild celery2 573 B.C.

11 LATE ATHENIAN ERA (480 B.C. to 338 B.C.) Military successes in the Persian Wars led to freedoms, individualism, and self- confidence “Golden Age” (443 B.C. to 429 B.C.)— cultural explosion as Man of Wisdom was stressed and Man of Action ignored Loss of interest in physical development –Intellectualism –Decline of Athenian military interest and involvement (no longer soldiers) –Replacement of citizens by mercenaries

12 Professionalism and specialization in athletics (citizens became spectators instead of participants); Athletes sold their services to city-states Gymnasiums became pleasure resorts and places for philosophical discussions instead of activity-filled centers; the only ones who trained physically were the professional athletes

13 HELLENISTIC PERIOD (323 B.C. to 146 B.C.) Under Alexander the Great—all Greek city-states united Diffused Greek culture throughout his empire

14 IDEALS DEPICTED THROUGH GREEK ATHLETICS Appreciation of the aesthetics of beauty of movement Beautiful body matched with beautiful deeds Respect for courage and endurance Reverence for the gods Emphasized honor, modesty, and fair play Love of competition—man against man for superiority, not for records

15 OLYMPIC GAMES (776 B.C. to about 400 A.D.) Held every 4 years in honor of Zeus and the Olympic Council of gods Cultural interaction between city-states Competitors and spectators (up to 40,000) were guaranteed safe passage (truce) through warring city-states No women at Olympic Games except for those who were in charge of the sacrifices Olive wreath for each winner Winners received; cash; pensions; statues; triumphal processions at city-states

16 COMPETITOR REGULATIONS Required to be Greek citizen Could be from any social class Required to train 10 months Required to train the last month at Olympia under the supervision of judges Pledged an oath of fair play Competed in the nude

17 EVENTS Footraces—how started; turning post –Stade—the length of the stadium or about 200 meters (776 B.C.) –Diaulos—2 stades (724 B.C.) –Dolichos—24 stades (724 B.C.) Wrestling—standing with the winner throwing his opponent to the ground twice before being thrown twice (708 B.C.)

18 PENTATHLON—All-around athlete (708 B.C.) Race of 1 or 2 stades Javelin—8-10 feet to test both distance and form (with leather thong) Long jump using halteres Discus—using 1-foot diameter and 4-5 pound stone thrown from a fixed position Wrestling—always the deciding event

19 OTHER EVENTS Boxing—with leather thongs on hands (688 B.C.) –Confined blows to the head –No weight classifications –Loser had to give up Pancration—combination of boxing and wrestling (loser had to give up) (648 B.C.) Chariot racing—(680 B.C.)—12 laps around 500-meter hippodrome Races in armor (580 B.C.) Boys’ events (632 B.C.) Horse racing (648 B.C.)—(1-6 laps)

20 ROMAN REPUBLIC B.C. to 27 B.C.) Freedoms for people under aristocratic oligarchy; more democratic Moral and military training—superior to intellectual attainment Goal was to become a citizen-soldier Campus Martius and military camps—training for military (run; jump; swim; javelin; fencing; archery; riding; marching) Ages 17 to 47—could be drafted for war When not training or fighting, males and many females were spectators at festivals

21 ROMAN EMPIRE (27 B.C. to A.D.476) Loss of individual freedoms; lessened emphasis on military prowess; hired mercenaries after Romans had established the Empire; accompanied by a decay of morals Games and festivals (maybe as frequently as 250 days of the year) –Staged for spectator entertainment with political overtones –Professional athletes and gladiators competed for lucrative prizes

22 ROMAN EMPIRE (27 B.C. to A.D.476) Chariot races -- the more brutal, the more popular (usually 7 laps for a 3-mile event); took place at the circuses (Circus Maximus—260,000 capacity) Thermae or bathes—contrast baths with minimal exercise (except for the training of professional athletes and gladiators); cultural centers; dining areas

23 MIDDLE AGES (11th to 16th centuries, especially ) Chivalry—moral and social code for noblemen (to serve God, lord, and lady) –Feudalism—protection and government –Manoralism—economics Knightly training –Until 7 years—training at home –7-14 years (page)—under the lady of another castle for general training –14-21 years (squire)—under the direction of the lord of the castle for physical training –21 years—could become a knight

24 MIDDLE AGES (11th to 16th centuries especially ) Activities of the squire –Attend his lord as a valet and bodyguard –Served his meals –Assisted him in battle –Cleaned his armor –Learned knightly arts of riding; swimming; archery; climbing; jousting; tourneying; wrestling; fencing; courtly manners –Learned responsibilities of knighthood

25 MIDDLE AGES (11th to 16th centuries especially ) Tournaments—favorite amusements of the people –Joust—combat between two armed horsemen with blunt weapons –Grand tourney or melee— similarities to war with many men fighting with real weapons Crusades—interrelationship between the physical and spiritual ( s)

26 RENAISSANCE ( ) Artists again depicted the human body as a revelation of beauty Health stressed to overcome epidemics Embraced the classical ideal of “a sound mind in a sound body”

27 REFORMATION (15OOs) Protestant sects relegated physical education to an inferior position and endeavored to curb “worldly pleasures” (religious fervor) Martin Luther and John Calvin were leaders in this movement –Exercise was okay for health—in order to serve God better Protestant work ethic affected America

28 THE Age of ENLIGHTENMENT (1700s) John Locke –Knightly activities for British gentlemen –"A sound mind in a sound body" in 1693 in Some Thoughts Concerning Education

29 EDUCATIONAL Protagonists (1400s to 1800s) Jean-Jacques Rousseau –Wrote Emile as a philosophical model –Stressed "everything according to nature" –Training of the body preceded formal intellectual training—best if both could develop together naturally –Stressed recreational, vigorous activity for children (natural activities) –Readiness was the key concept

30 GERMAN GYMNASTICS Naturalism Johann Basedow—Philanthropinum—1774 –Based on naturalistic principles from Rousseau –Program—1 hour in morning; 2 hours in afternoon; 2 hours of manual labor Fencing; dancing; riding; vaulting—Basedow Running; jumping; throwing; wrestling—Simon –Johann Friedrich Simon—first physical education teacher

31 GERMAN GYMNASTICS C.G. Salzmann (teacher at Philanthropinum) Schnepfenthal Institute—1785 –Patterned after the Philanthropinum and naturalism Program—daily for 3 hours –Natural activities—run; jump –Greek-type activities—wrestling; throwing –Knightly activities—swimming; climbing –Military exercises—marching; swordsmanship –Manual labor—carpentry; gardening

32 GERMAN GYMNASTICS Johann Friedrich GutsMuths— –Gymnastics for the Young —1792— foundation for physical education –Games—1796—105 games classified with skills

33 GERMAN GYMNASTICS Friedrich Ludwig Jahn –Physical education was a means, not an end—the hope of German freedom lay in the development of strong, sturdy, fearless youth—national regeneration –Half-holiday excursions in natural settings—based on GutMuths’ ideas –1810—Turnplatz (outdoor exercising ground) with vaulting bucks; parallel bars; climbing ladders and ropes; balance beams; running track; wrestling ring

34 GERMAN GYMNASTICS Common uniform to make all social classes equal (gray canvas smock and trousers) Working classes and lower middle classes predominately Initially open only in July and August; later open year round Individualized under Jahn Vorturners trained younger boys 1819—illegal 1840—legal 1848—illegal (underground)

35 ADOLPH SPIESS—GERMAN SCHOOL GYMNASTICS (late 1840s) Stressed the essentially of physical education within education –Exercise hall required –Trained instructors—established a normal school to train them –One class period per day –Grades given—physical education was equal to other subjects –Adapted to age levels –For both boys and girls

36 ADOLPH SPIESS—FOUNDER OF GERMAN SCHOOL GYMNASTICS (late 1840s) Program –Free exercise with music –Marching with music and stressed discipline –Little formalism in sports, games, and dancing –Manual of gymnastics for schools

37 DANISH GYMNASTICS —FRANZ NACHTEGALL 1799—Established his private gymnasium based on the ideas of GutsMuths 1804—Director of the Military Gymnastic Institute—government financed and the first normal school for physical education Danish gymnastics—required in the schools in the 1820s Program –Danish gymnastics—based on ideas from Germany, Sweden, and England –For boys and girls—in the schools

38 DANISH GYMNASTICS— FRANZ NACHTEGALL Formalized exercise on command with no individual expression allowed Theme—nationalism 1809—Gymnastics in secondary schools 1814—Required for elementary boys 1828—Required for all boys (girls in the 1900s) Equipment—rope ladders; climbing masts and poles; balance beams; vaulting horse (like GutsMuths)

39 SWEDISH GYMNASTICS Per Henrik Ling—founder of Swedish gymnastics Four areas of gymnastics –Military—national preparedness –Medical—therapeutic healing –Pedagogical—educational (methodology stressed) –Aesthetics—expression of feelings 1814—Royal Gymnastics Central Institute Established by the government for military purposes with Ling as director

40 SWEDISH GYMNASTICS –Posture correcting—rigidly held positions –Movement on command into positions (no freedom of movement) –Apparatus developed—stall bars; vaulting boxes; climbing poles and ropes; oblique ropes; Swedish boom –Devised a system of massage (appealed to females)

41 SWEDISH GYMNASTICS Hjalmar Ling—Director of the educational segment of the Royal Gymnastics Central Institute (RGCI) in 1840s –Developed Swedish school gymnastics—based on Per Henrik Ling's (father) principles

42 Hjalmar Ling (Swedish) –Program Day's order—progressive, precise execution of movements on command (for 11 body parts) Adapted to age and ability levels Adapted to both sexes Adapted apparatus to children

43 Great Britain (1800’s)ENGLISH SPORTS English sports movement in the public schools—for upper-class boys Students worked toward (and were) the highest ideal of British sportsmanship Influenced amateur sport worldwide and especially in America The best sportsman makes the best citizen

44 Working-class males Pugilism (bare-knuckle boxing) Blood sports (cockfighting) Football (soccer) Required little equipment Encouraged gambling Banned by the church.

45 ENGLISH SPORTS Sports –Rugby –Association football –Cricket –Track and field –Rowing Muscular Christianity—teaching values through sports

46 ATTITUDES TOWARD SPORTS HELD BY STUDENTS IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS A "public-school" type boy was more a product of sports and games than of books and scholastic training Physical fitness was not valued; instead, if one engages in sports, he will be fit; sports are just a part of life Sports were played by those less specialized, therefore, the level of expertise will be lower Skills are seldom practiced because sports skills will be learned by playing

47 ATTITUDES TOWARD SPORTS HELD BY STUDENTS IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS Sports were mostly played between the houses with few spectators, although sometimes interschool matches were held Masters, out of school loyalty, acted as coaches Belief in playing the game for the game's sake—trying to do one's best Believed to teach socialization skills, leadership, loyalty, cooperation, sportsmanship, self-discipline, and initiative

48 ENGLISH SPORTS IN THE UNIVERSITIES Believed in informal, casual, and non-intense sports involvement—playing at their games Usually students played several sports (exception was rowing) No paid coaches—had undergraduate captains No faculty involvement and support Purchased own equipment; paid own travel Football and hockey paid for the upkeep of fields for other sports

49 Pierre Coubertin Founded the modern Olympic Games in 1896, Athens Greece


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