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Chapter 7 The Macroeconomy: Unemployment, Inflation, and Deflation.

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1 Chapter 7 The Macroeconomy: Unemployment, Inflation, and Deflation

2 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved. 7-2 Introduction How does the U.S. government measure the overall level of prices? Why doesn’t the U.S. government use Wal-Mart prices in calculating inflation? This chapter will help you answer these questions.

3 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved. 7-3 Learning Objectives Explain how the U.S. government calculates the official unemployment rate Discuss the types of unemployment Describe how price indexes are calculated and define the key types of price indexes

4 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved. 7-4 Learning Objectives (cont'd) Distinguish between nominal and real interest rates Evaluate who looses and who gains from inflation Understand key features of business fluctuations

5 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved. 7-5 Chapter Outline Unemployment The Major Types of Unemployment Full Employment and the Natural Rate of Unemployment Full Employment and the Natural Rate of Unemployment Inflation and Deflation Anticipated versus Unanticipated Inflation Changing Inflation and Unemployment: Business Fluctuations Changing Inflation and Unemployment: Business Fluctuations

6 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved. 7-6 Did You Know That... Trying to understand and better forecast labor employment and the overall performance of the national economy is a central objective of macroeconomics? This branch of economics seeks to explain and predict movements in unemployment, the average level of prices, and the total production of goods and services?

7 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved. 7-7 Unemployment  Total number of adults (aged 16 years or older) willing and able to work and who are actively looking for work and have not found a job

8 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved. 7-8 Unemployment (cont'd) Labor Force  Individuals aged 16 years or older who either have jobs or who are looking and available for jobs; the number of employed plus the number of unemployed

9 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved. 7-9 Unemployment (cont'd) Question  What are the costs of unemployment?

10 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Unemployment (cont'd) Answers  Lost output  During early 2000s, unemployment rate rose by 2 percentage points  Factory output was 80% of potential  Lost output was $200 billion of goods and services that could have been produced  Personal psychological impact

11 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics Figure 7-1 More Than a Century of Unemployment

12 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Figure 7-2 Adult Population

13 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Unemployment (cont'd) The unemployment rate is the percentage of the measured labor force that is unemployed.

14 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved * = Unemployment (cont'd) *U.S., millions of people; as of 2007 Labor force = The employed+ The unemployed Unemployment rate =  x 100 Unemployed Labor force =  x 100 = 4.8%

15 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Unemployment (cont'd) Stock  The quantity of something, measured at a given point in time—for example, an inventory of goods Flow  A quantity measured over time, such as the income you make per year, or the number of individuals fired every month

16 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Unemployment (cont'd) Categories of individuals without work  Job loser  Reentrant  Job leaver  New entrant

17 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Unemployment (cont'd) Job Loser  An individual whose employment was involuntarily terminated or who was laid off  40–60% of the unemployed

18 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Unemployment (cont'd) Reentrant  An individual who has worked a full-time job before but left the labor force and has now reentered it looking for a job  20–30% of the unemployed

19 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Unemployment (cont'd) Job Leaver  An individual who voluntarily quit  10 to 15% of the unemployed

20 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Unemployment (cont'd) New Entrant  An individual who has never worked a full- time job for two weeks or longer  10 to 15% of the unemployed

21 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Unemployment (cont'd) Duration of unemployment  More than a third of job seekers find work within one month.  Approximately another third find employment within a second month.  About a sixth are still unemployed after six months.  Average duration is just over 15 weeks throughout the last 15 years.

22 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Figure 7-3 The Logic of the Unemployment Rate

23 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Unemployment (cont'd) Question  What is likely to happen to the duration of unemployment during a downturn in the economy?

24 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Unemployment (cont'd) Discouraged Workers  Individuals who have stopped looking for a job because they are convinced they will not find a suitable one Question  How does the existence of discouraged workers bias the unemployment rate?

25 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Unemployment (cont'd) Labor Force Participation Rate  The proportion of noninstitutionalized working-age individuals who are employed or seeking employment

26 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved The Major Types of Unemployment The major types of unemployment  Frictional  Structural  Cyclical  Seasonal

27 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved The Major Types of Unemployment (cont'd) Frictional Unemployment  Results from the fact that workers must search for appropriate job offers  This takes time, so they remain temporarily unemployed

28 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved The Major Types of Unemployment (cont'd) Structural Unemployment  Results from a poor match of workers’ abilities and skills with current requirements of employers

29 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved The Major Types of Unemployment (cont'd) Cyclical Unemployment  Results from business recessions that occur when aggregate (total) demand is insufficient to create full employment

30 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved The Major Types of Unemployment (cont'd) Seasonal Unemployment  Results from the seasonal pattern of work in specific industries

31 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved International Example: Challenges of Measuring the Unemployment Rate in China Measurement of China’s labor force and unemployment rate fails to encompass all of the roughly 115 million people who migrate from rural areas. In addition, China’s government has not yet developed a way to determine how many millions of people laid off from state- owned firms have obtained positions with private firms.

32 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Full Employment and the Natural Rate of Unemployment Question  Does full employment mean that everybody has a job?

33 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Full Employment and the Natural Rate of Unemployment (cont'd) Full Employment  An arbitrary level of unemployment that corresponds to “normal” friction in the labor market

34 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Full Employment and the Natural Rate of Unemployment (cont'd) Natural Rate of Unemployment  The unemployment rate that is estimated to prevail in the long-run macroeconomic equilibrium  Should not reflect cyclical unemployment  When seasonally adjusted, the natural rate should include only frictional and structural unemployment.

35 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Inflation and Deflation Inflation  A sustained increase in the average of all prices of goods and services in an economy Deflation  A sustained decrease in the average of all prices of goods and services in an economy

36 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Inflation and Deflation (cont'd) Purchasing Power  The value of money for buying goods and services  Varies with prices and income

37 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Inflation and Deflation (cont'd) Nominal value  Price expressed in today’s dollars Real value  Value expressed in purchasing power, adjusted for inflation

38 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Price index =  100 Cost today of market basket Cost of market basket in base year Inflation and Deflation (cont'd) Measuring the rate of inflation  Price Index  The cost of today’s market basket of goods expressed as a percentage of the cost of the same market basket during a base year

39 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Inflation and Deflation (cont'd) Market Basket  Representative bundle of goods and services Base Year  The point of reference for comparison of prices in other years

40 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Table 7-1 Calculating a Price Index for a Two-Good Market Basket

41 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Inflation and Deflation (cont'd) Real-world price indexes  Consumer Price Index (CPI)  Producer Price Index (PPI)  GDP deflator  Personal Consumption Expenditure (PCE)

42 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Inflation and Deflation (cont'd) Consumer Price Index (CPI)  A statistical measure of a weighted average of prices of a specified set of goods and services purchased by wage earners in urban areas  Market basket of goods and services of typical consumer

43 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Inflation and Deflation (cont'd) Producer Price Index (PPI)  A statistical measure of a weighted average of prices of goods and services that firms produce and sell  Used as a short-run leading indicator (before CPI)  PPIs for  Foodstuffs  Intermediate goods  Finished goods

44 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Inflation and Deflation (cont'd) GDP Deflator  A price index measuring the changes in prices of all new goods and services produced in the economy  Broadest measure of prices; reflects both price changes and the public’s market responses to those price changes

45 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Inflation and Deflation (cont'd) Personal Consumption Expenditure (PCE) Index  A statistical measure of average price using annually updated weights based on consumer spending  Primary inflation index used by the Federal Reserve

46 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Figure 7-4 Inflation and Deflation in U.S. History Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics

47 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Anticipated versus Unanticipated Inflation Anticipated versus unanticipated inflation  To determine who is hurt by inflation we distinguish between the two types.  The effects of inflation on individuals depend upon which type of inflation exists.

48 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Anticipated versus Unanticipated Inflation (cont'd) Anticipated Inflation  The inflation rate that we believe will occur Unanticipated Inflation  Inflation at a rate that comes as a surprise

49 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Anticipated versus Unanticipated Inflation (cont'd) Inflation and interest rates  Nominal Rate of Interest  The market rate of interest expressed in today’s dollars  Real Rate of Interest  The nominal rate of interest minus the anticipated rate of inflation

50 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Anticipated versus Unanticipated Inflation (cont'd) Real interest rate  Nominal interest rate = 10%  Expected inflation rate = 6%  Real rate = 10% – 6% = 4%

51 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Anticipated versus Unanticipated Inflation (cont'd) Does inflation necessarily hurt everyone?  Inflation affects people differently Unanticipated inflation  Creditors lose  Debtors gain

52 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Anticipated versus Unanticipated Inflation (cont'd) Protecting against inflation  Cost-Of-Living Adjustments (COLAs)  Clauses in contracts that allow for increases in specified nominal values to take account of changes in the cost of living

53 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Anticipated versus Unanticipated Inflation (cont'd) The resource cost of inflation  Repricing or Menu Cost of Inflation  The cost associated with recalculating prices and printing new price lists when there is inflation

54 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Policy Example: How Pervasive Is “Inflation Inequality” in the United States? Inequality based on consumption of fuel, education, and health care Households facing higher inflation do so for a short period of time. To the extent inflation inequality exits, it is neither pervasive nor persistent.

55 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Changing Inflation and Unemployment: Business Fluctuations Business Fluctuations  The ups and downs in business activity throughout the economy

56 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Changing Inflation and Unemployment: Business Fluctuations (cont'd) Expansion  A business fluctuation in which the pace of national economic activity is speeding up

57 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Changing Inflation and Unemployment: Business Fluctuations (cont'd) Contraction  A business fluctuation during which the pace of national economic activity is slowing down

58 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Changing Inflation and Unemployment: Business Fluctuations (cont'd) Recession  A period of time during which the rate of growth of business activity is consistently less than its long-term trend or is negative Depression  An extremely severe recession

59 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Figure 7-5 The Idealized Course of Business Fluctuations

60 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Figure 7-6 National Business Activity, 1880 to the Present

61 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Changing Inflation and Unemployment: Business Fluctuations (cont'd) Leading Indicators  Events that have been found to occur before changes in business activity  Economic downturns often follow  Reduction in the average workweek  Rise in unemployment insurance claims  Decrease in prices of raw materials  Drop in the quantity of money circulating

62 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Issues and Applications: Wal-Mart, Product Quality, and the CPI Wal-Mart offers lower prices on most food items. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) uses prices charged at a nearby Kroger. As far as the BLS is concerned, lower Wal- Mart prices must reflect lower quality. BLS quality adjustments may result in an upward bias in the rate of CPI inflation.

63 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Summary Discussion of Learning Objectives How the U.S. government calculates the official unemployment rate  Percentage of the total number of adults willing and able to work who are actively looking for work but have not found a job The major types of unemployment  Frictional  Structural  Cyclical  Seasonal

64 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Summary Discussion of Learning Objectives (cont'd) Full employment  Arbitrary level of unemployment  Corresponds to “normal” friction in labor market Natural rate of unemployment  Estimated to prevail in the long-run macroeconomic equilibrium  All workers and employers adjust to any changes in economy

65 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Summary Discussion of Learning Objectives (cont'd) How price indexes are calculated and key price indexes  Multiply 100 times the ratio of the cost of a market basket of goods in the current year to the cost of the same basket in a base year  Key price indexes  CPI  PPI  GDP deflator  PCE

66 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Summary Discussion of Learning Objectives (cont'd) Nominal versus real interest rates  Nominal rate is the market rate expressed in current dollars.  Real rate is net of inflation.  Hence the real interest rate equals the nominal interest rate minus the expected inflation rate.

67 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Summary Discussion of Learning Objectives (cont'd) Losers and gainers from inflation  Creditors lose as a result of unanticipated inflation.  Borrowers gain.

68 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Addison Wesley. All rights reserved Summary Discussion of Learning Objectives (cont'd) Key features of business fluctuations  Increases and decreases in business activity  Expansion from previous trough to new peak  Contraction from previous peak to new trough

69 End of Chapter 7 The Macroeconomy: Unemployment, Inflation, and Deflation


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