Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer – February 22 & 23 What were the causes of WWI? What was the spark that began the War? Name the alliance before WWI and during WWI for each."— Presentation transcript:
Bell Ringer – February 22 & 23 What were the causes of WWI? What was the spark that began the War? Name the alliance before WWI and during WWI for each of the following countries: –Russia –Italy –Germany –Ottoman Empire
1914 Map 1. Russia (A) [Tsar Nicholas II] 2. Ottoman Empire (C) [Enver Pasha] 3. Austria-Hungary (C) [Franz Joseph] 4. Germany (C) [Wilhelm II] 5. France (A) [Poincare] 6. Great Britain (A) [George V] 7. Serbia 8. Sarajevo, Bosnia (Franz Ferdinand was assassinated) 9. Western Front--trench lines A = Allies C = Central Powers
Today’s Objectives Explain the Schlieffen Plan and its significance. Describe the type of warfare during WWI and how it created a stalemate. Describe Trench Warfare and make a judgment about the glorification of war. Identify weapons used in WWI. Locate the Eastern and Western Fronts. Define propaganda, identify its uses, and analyze examples.
Global War - 1914 It was observed that the average Englishman positively wanted war. A French writer said, “this is fine and just and great.” France began mobilizing against Germany on August 1,1914. Three days later, Germany declared war on France. Here, Parisians cheer French lancers off to fight the Germans.
Schlieffen Plan (schlee-fuhn) Germany’s War Plan from 1905 Called for… –Swift knock out of France –Followed by a defensive action against Russia Based on the threat of a Britain-France Alliance
Nations Take Sides Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Allied Powers Great Britain France Russia Italy United States
Mobilization “It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go. It's a long way to Tipperary To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye Piccadilly, Farewell Leicester Square! It's a long long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there.” First World War.com - Vintage Audio - It's a Long Way to Tipperary Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism!
New Weapons Used in the War Machine Gun British machine guns fired 8 rounds per second, at a distance of 2,900 yards
Artillery Bullets (shells) had great power and carried much further.
Weapons of the Industrial Age 75 different types of poison-gas bombs used Flame throwers Tanks Airplanes Submarines
Casualties of Modern Weaponry Tactics of sending masses of men toward enemy didn’t work against modern weapons. Britain suffered 57,470 casualties on the first day of the Battle of the Somme Total deaths in World War I - 10 million+.
Form of warfare that consisted of trenches, or dugouts, where troops were sheltered from enemy fire. Troops occupied fighting lines called “front lines”. The land between the two fighting lines was called “No Man’s Land”. Trench Warfare
WARFARE: THEN AND NOW THEN Before WWI, fighting was centered on attacking fortifications (forts) or in an open field. NOW Military revolution (machine gun, tanks, and hand grenades) Network of trenches = slow wearing down of enemy STALEMATE OF CONFLICT
War of Attrition Attrition means "the act of weakening or exhausting by constant harassment, abuse, or attack." A war of attrition is where both sides suffer steady, but heavy casualties, not making terrific gains in territory, but simply trying to get the enemy to surrender before their own armies are decimated by these steady losses.
Western Front Western Front: the deadlocked area in Northern France Germany’s Schlieffen Plan worked until the Battle of Marne when the Germans were stopped from marching into Paris. Germans began to dig trenches. Britain and France also decided to dig trenches.
Eastern Front Eastern Front: Line of fighting on the Eastern side of Europe between Russia and Germany Fighting began there when Russia invaded East Prussia. There was a pattern of attack and counter- attack. Russia withdrew from the war in 1917.
World War I Propaganda What is propaganda? A type of biased communication designed to influence people’s thoughts and actions.
What did propaganda represent? Governments created thousands of paintings, posters, cartoons, and sculptures to promote the war. They represented …
Things to Do Complete Your Notes: 1.World War I Weapons Matching 2.Trench Warfare Reading 3.Reflection Questions
Journal Entry #2 Write a journal entry based on the experiences in the trenches of the western front. Take the viewpoint of either a Central Power OR Allied soldier. –What is your life like? –How do you keep going? –How do you feel physically and mentally?