3Korea used to have some of Asia's most prominent communist groups and activistsThese organizations worked underground to reestablish Korea's independence during Japan's occupation of the Korean Peninsula ( )
4OccupationIn 1945 Korea was occupied by Soviet forces in the north and American forces in the south.The line that was chosen to separate the two was the same one that Japan and Russia used in the early part of the 20th century.It was called the 38th parallel.
5Kim II Sung33-year-old, soviet army captain, Kim II Sung became known to be a heroic guerrilla commander.In early 1946, Soviet occupying forces chose him to head the provisional government for North Korea.3 weeks after the Southern Republic of Korea was made, _____ was named premier of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea on September 9th 1948.
6Progression & EconomyKim didn't want a Soviet satellite state and instead embraced Korean nationalism. The focus of which was the Korean People’s Army. Under Kim's rule:over 2 million acres of land were redistributed in under a monthwomen were guaranteed equality under the lawpolitical action cells were formed to educate the populationIt was clear that under his rule, North Korea had become economically well-endowed in comparison to South Korea. In June of 1949 both the Soviets and Americans had left the peninsula, this is when Kim's plan to unite Korea became evident.
7On the Brink of WarSouth Korea obviously appeared to be faltering, but President Syngman Rhee (South Korea) unleashed a brutal campaign against suspected communists and leftists.At first Kim wanted to use force, however he needed support and so he turned to Stalin for help. Stalin supported his invasion plan, and advised him to get support from China’s new communist leader, Mao Zedong. He did and was now on the brink of war.
9Leading Causes of the Korean War ReputationAmerican Army had recently upped the anti as far as the arms race went and Truman wanted to display the power and wealth of America internationally.The USSR wanted better results and a chance to prove themselves after the Berlin Blockade. This was particularly important to Stalin.They felt that the Korean war was their way of proving their reputation.
10Leading Causes of the Korean War SupportThe USA wanted to support Syngman Rhee because he was a democrat surrounded by communismUSA: supported South Korea.The USSR wanted to support the communist nation, because of the same political ideals.USSR: supported North Korea.They could not get involved in a war againstcommunism without directly fighting the USSR.
11Leading Causes of the Korean War Cold WarStalin encouraged the spread of communism as long as it did not result in a war with America. He soon realized that nuclear war might be a possibility and wanted to avoid that and beat the USA using more indirect means.The Domino Effect - Truman believed that if Korea fell to communism, Japan (a major trading partner) would follow.The Truman Doctrine stated that the USA would lend aid to any country not wishing to be suppressed by the political ideals (communism) of any other country.April 1950 the American National Security Council issued a report recommending direct involvement (a proxy war) against communism.Stalin saw that the Korean War Was a chance for a war by proxy. Kim II Sung visited Stalin to persuade him that he could conquer South Korea.
12This map is from an American magazine from 1950 This map is from an American magazine from This shows how much the US feared communism in the far east.
13United States, United Nations, and the Soviet Union’s Response to the Korean War
14United NationsThe United Nations now had to formulate a plan. Sixteen member states would provide troops under a United Nations Joint Command. It would fight with the South Korean army.This United Nations force was dominated by America even to the extent of being commanded by an American general – Douglas MacArthurOn September 15th 1950, United Nations troops landed at Inchon. The landing was a huge success and the United Nations effectively cut the North Korean army in half and pushed them out of South Korea.Note: MacArthur was later fired by Truman for getting the Chinese involved in the war.
15Soviet UnionSoviets sold Chinese military equipment, including artillery and MIG fighter planes.The USSR also provided advisers and military hardware to the North Koreans.Soviet pilots flew MIGs against US planes.However, Stalin was unwilling to become involved with the United States in a war over Korea.
16United StatesThe US provided the majority of the UN military forces which drove the North Koreans out of South Korea and still stand guard along the border. The US moved their troops into South Korea quickly.The US and the Soviets agreed to divide Korea temporarily to avoid long term decisions regarding Korea's future.Although the United States took the lead in the Korean action, it did so under the order of the United Nations.
18Why did China enter the war? UN forces pushed north to ChinaCrossed 38th parallelYalu River and border with ChinaMao Zedong already made it clear that China would not tolerate foreign forces on border
19What happens next? October 14 to November 1, 1950 November 2 Chinese send 180,000 of the People’s Volunteer Army to cross Yalu RiverThey pushed the American forces backNovember 2UN realizes that the attack was done by Communist China
20“Home-by-Christmas” offensive November 24 – MacArthur launches offensive attackChinese army retaliates with full forceAmerican and South Korean units retreatEnds January 1951
22The Korean War Armistice Designed to insure an end to warfare and all acts of armed force in Korea until a definitive peaceful could be achievedIt was signed on July 27,1953Covered issues such asexchange of prisoners of war- location of a demarcation lineIntended as a temporary measure, but the 38th parallel remains standing even today.
23Enforced by a Military Armistice Commission Armies began the awkward process of disengagement over the 4km wide DMZ.It provided…suspension of open hostilitiesfixed demarcation line with a four kilometre (2.4 mile) buffer zone - the so-called demilitarization zoneA mechanism for the transfer of prisoners of war
25Armistice- only safeguard for peace on the Korean peninsula an international conference in Geneva was organized by the United States- discussed the political future of Korea- no agreement was producedArmistice- only safeguard for peace on the Korean peninsula
27After three years, July 27, 1953- ceasefire stopped the fighting Although there was no declared winner, South Korea never succumbed to a communist rule.
28There was an armistice signed by North Korea, China, and the UN but not by South Korea. The armistice was NOT a peace treaty, just a temporary cessation of hostilities.
29Korea is still split up into North Korea (communist) and South Korea (non-communist) The border between the two countries has remained one of the most heavily-armed stretches of land on Earth
30Big Questions Did it improve American status overseas? Did it stop the Domino Effect from happening again?How did this war effect North and South Korean relations for the future?Will the 38th parallel ever be diminished?