2Learning Objectives Types of conflict Conflict resolution approaches Power in organizationsPower tacticsInfluencing tacticsRational and political models of organization
3Types of conflictConflict is a state of mind. It has to be perceived by the parties involved.If two or more parties are not aware of the conflict, no conflict exists.Conflicts are based upon differences in interests of another.Functional conflict supports organization goals and improves performanceDysfunctional conflict hinders organizational performance
4Figure 21.1 Types of conflict, internal organizational characteristics, and required management actionsSource: Based on Hatch (1997, p.305); Robbins (1998, p.464)
5Managerial action required Insufficient conflict, the unit or group does not perform at its besttoo much conflict and its performance deteriorates.For example, in condition one there is little conflict, and so they need to stimulate more. In contrast, in condition three, there is too much conflict and they need to reduce it.In both cases they seek to achieve an optimum level of conflict depicted in column two
6Benefits and losses from conflict: BENEFITS LOSSESProductive task focus Energy diversionCohesion and satisfaction Distorted judgmentPower and feedback Loser effectsGoal attainment Poor coordination
7Causes of conflict: Communication factors Structural factors Size ParticipationLine–staff distinctionsReward systemsResource interdependenceTask interdependencePowerThe list in the above slide continues in the next.
8Causes of conflict (continued) Personal behaviour factorsCommunication stylesWorkforce diversityDifferences in goalsReward structuresDifferences in perceptionsContinues the causes of conflict from the last slide.
9Five conflict resolution approaches Avoiding. – ignoring or suppressing a conflict in the hope it will go away or not be too disruptive.Accomodating refers to solving a conflict by allowing the other’s desires to prevail.Competing style attempts to attain personal objectives and often ignores the needs of othersCompromising style seeks out compromise between conflicting parties or elements.Collaborating - resolving conflicts by devising solutions that allow all parties to achieve desired outcomes
10Figure 21.4 Conflict resolution approaches Source: From Ruble and Thomas (1976, p.145)
11Table 21.3 Conflict resolution approaches compared Source: From Whetton et al. (2000, p.345)
12Managing intergroup conflict Problem solvingIntergroup trainingExpansion ofresourcesIntergroup conflictresolutionConfrontation &negotiationSmoothingBureaucraticauthorityLimited communication
13Power in organizations Power is a person’s potential to influence and change others behavior in a desired direction.Organizational power is the capacity of managers to exert influence over othersPersonal power is obtained from the acceptance of followers, not from higher levels of management.Power is generated, maintained and lost in the context of relationships with others. It derives from the work of John French and Raven who distinguished five power bases as:
14Table Bases of powerAfter French and Raven (1958)
15Reward power is only effective if what is offered is see as desirable. Cohen and Bradford identified eight types of rewards which they call organizational currencies.They show how these can be used to persuade others to comply with your request.
16Table 22.3 Organizational currencies Source: Based on Cohen and Bradford (1989, 1991)
17Power tacticsHow do individuals use their power and get others to do what they want?Power is the ability to produce the intended effects in line with one’s perceived interests. Power tactics can be classified under the headings ofimage building; selective information;scapegoating; formal alliances; networking’ compromise; rule manipulation; as well ascovert ‘dirty tricks’ methods
19Influencing tacticsGary Yuki reviewed the research into influencing managers, coworkers and subordinatesHe identified 12 influencing tactics and judged their effectiveness.
20Table 22.6 Influencing tactics Source: Based on Yukl (2000, 2005); Yukl and Falbe (1990)
21Table 22.6 Influencing tactics (Continued) Source: Based on Yukl (2000, 2005); Yukl and Falbe (1990)
22Rational and political models of organization. The rational model of organizations sees behaviour in organizations as guided by clear goals and choices made on the basis of reason. The political model of organization sees no such logical behaviour, but sees organizations made up of groups possessing their own interests, goals and values, and in which power and influence are needed in order to reach decisions.These two models have different implications for how people are understood to operate within organizations and which interests they are held to give priority to.
23Table 22.7 Rational versus political models of organization Source: Based on Pfeffer (1981, p.31)
24Political behaviour in organizations A high need for power (nPow), the desire to make an impact on others, change people or events and make a difference in life.A high Machiavellianism score, a personality trait or style of behavior towards others characterized by the use of guile and deceit in interpersonal relations, a cynical view of the nature of other people and a lack of concern with conventional morality.
25Political behaviour in organizations An internal locus of control, an individual’s generalized belief about internal self control versus external control by the situation or by other.A risk-seeking propensity refers to the willingness of an individual to choose options that entail risks.Next slide summarizes female and male stereotypes in approach to organizational politics