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WAYS ORGANISMS INTERACT 4-2

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Presentation on theme: "WAYS ORGANISMS INTERACT 4-2"— Presentation transcript:

1 WAYS ORGANISMS INTERACT

2 Ways organisms interact ______________________ Between SAME and DIFFERENT kinds of organisms Compete with each other for available resources __________________________ Between DIFFERENT kinds of organisms Hunt and kill other organisms to supply their energy needs __________________________ Between SAME kind of organisms Live together and help each other __________________________ Between DIFFERENT kinds of organisms live in close association with another kind of organism

3 WHAT IS A RESOURCE? ____________________________________________ Examples: ________________________

4 COMPETITION Organisms in an ecosystem have to compete with each other for available resources.

5 COMPETITION Organisms in an ecosystem have to compete with each other for available resources:

6 COMPETITION Organisms in an ecosystem have to compete with each other for available resources

7 COMPETITION Organisms in an ecosystem have to compete with each other for available resources: Prairie dogs - 5 to 35 per acre Mountain lion- 1 male per sq. mi

8 COMPETITION Organisms in an ecosystem have to compete with each other for available resources:

9 Ways organisms interact ___________________ Between DIFFERENT kinds of organisms Hunt and kill other organisms to supply their energy needs

10 PREDATION Organisms in an ecosystem that capture and eat other organisms to supply their energy needs

11 INTERDEPENDENCE All living and non-living things in an ecosystem are interconnected and changing even one thing impacts the whole ecosystem. When one tugs at a single thing in nature, he finds it attached to the rest of the world. ~John Muir, naturalist, Sierra Club founder

12 COMPETITION If resources are scarce, some organisms will starve and populations will decrease. If resources become more plentiful, populations will increase. Competition in nature often results in a winner and a loser... with the loser failing to survive!

13 If a nutrient is in _____________ OR __________________ it will LIMIT the growth of the population = _____________ During this drought, there was not enough food available and many kangaroos starved.

14 REMEMBER: EVERYTHING IS CONNECTED ! A decrease in the prey population means some predators will starve. Fewer predators mean prey population will increase. Increase in prey means more food for predators. Predator population will increase until there is not enough food... and the cycle repeats itself. BIOLOGY; MIller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006

15 LIMITING NUTRIENT When an ecosystem receives a LARGE input of limiting nutrient (ie.,fertilizer runoff) the population increases dramatically = ___________ The short supply of a limiting nutrient keeps the population in check.

16 Ways organisms interact __________________ Between SAME kind of organisms Live together and help each other

17 COOPERATION Same species live together in groups EX: herds, packs, colonies, families, etc Share food & childcare responsibilities Groom each other Take care of sick

18 COOPERATION Same species live together in groups EX: herds, packs, colonies, families, etc Hunt in packs Provide protection

19 Ways organisms interact __________________________ Between DIFFERENT kinds of organisms Live in close association with another kind of organism

20 3 KINDS of SYMBIOSIS ______________________ Both organisms benefit ______________________ One organism benefits; Other is neither harmed nor helped _____________________ One organism benefits; Other is harmed in some way

21 MUTUALISM “Good for me - Good for you” Birds eat parasites living on the hides of giraffes and rhinos while enjoying protection from predators. Groomed animals lose their pests.

22 MUTUALISM “Good for me - Good for you” Insects transfer pollen between plants as they gather nectar for food.

23 MUTUALISM “Good for me - Good for you” Clown fish gets protection from enemies by hiding out in poisonous sea anemones Sea anemone gets scraps of leftover food dropped by fish

24 COMMENSALISM “Good for me - Doesn’t bother you” Pilot fish receive scraps of food dropped by shark; Shark is neither harmed nor helped

25 COMMENSALISM “Good for me - Doesn’t bother you” Hermit crabs make homes in shells abandoned by snails; Snail is not harmed by crab

26 PARASITISM “Good for me - Hurts you” Barnacles are crustaceans that attach to the surface of whales and feed on their skin and fluids; Whale is harmed

27 PARASITISM “Good for me - Hurts you” Tick feeds on dog’s blood; Dog has discomfort, can get diseases/infection from bite

28 PARASITISM “Good for me - Hurts you” Tapeworms absorb food by living inside host intestine; host is harmed

29 BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES 3-3

30 See a video clip about CYCLES IN NATURE - Chap 3

31 Energy is not the only thing that moves through the ecosystem. Atoms are never destroyed... only transformed. Take a deep breath. The atoms you just inhaled may have been inhaled by a dinosaur millions of years ago. ENERGY & MATTER

32 4 ATOMS make up 95% of the body in most organisms CARBON HYDROGEN OXYGEN NITROGEN The same molecules are passed around again and again within the biosphere in ___________________________

33 WATER CYCLE = ___________________

34 WHY IS WATER IMPORTANT? Makes up 60-70% of your body Oxygen and Hydrogen are found in all the ________________________: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids Hydrogen in H 2 O supplies protons (H + ) & electrons for_______________

35 WHY IS WATER IMPORTANT? Water is a good _________________ Many molecules dissolve in water so it provides a place for chemical reactions to happen Water doesn’t change temperature easily so it helps with __________________

36 WATER CYCLE __________ _____________

37 The return of water to the surface in the form of rain, snow, sleet, hail, etc. = ____________________ The evaporation of water from the surface of plant leaves = ________________

38 PH ONLINE LINK Put in code: cbp-2033 Choose Start Image edited from: WATER CYCLE

39 CARBON CYCLE CO 2 in atmosphere CO 2 in ocean BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006

40 4 main CARBON reservoirs in BIOSPHERE CO 2 in atmosphere CO 2 in Ocean BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; In ____________ as CO 2 gas 2.In _______ as dissolved CO 2 gas 3.On _______ in organisms, rocks, soil 4.__________ as coal & petroleum (fossil fuels) and calcium carbonate in rocks

41 WHY IS CARBON IMPORTANT? Found in all the _______________ of cells: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids Image by Riedell

42 WHY IS CARBON IMPORTANT? Carbon in CO 2 provides the atoms for __________ production during __________________... the fuel that all living things depend on.

43 Section 3-3 NITROGEN CYCLE BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006

44 WHY IS NITROGEN IMPORTANT? Image by Riedell ________________ make DNA and RNA Adenine (nitrogen base) is used in ______ Makes AMINO part of _________ (proteins) Image by Riedell

45 79% of the atmosphere is made up of NITROGEN gas (N 2 ) Image by Riedell BUT we _____ use the nitrogen gas we breathe! The bond in N 2 gas is so strong it can only be broken by _______________ ____________________

46 Bacteria that live ______________ and in _________ relationships with plants called _________, take nitrogen from the atmosphere and turn it into ______________, a form that is usable by plants. THIS PROCESS IS CALLED _________________

47 Image from: and modified by Riedell Other bacteria in the soil convert ammonia into ________________ & _________________ which plants can also use. The nitrogen we need for proteins, ATP, and nucleic acids comes from the ___________ ___________ we breathe!

48 N 2 in Atmosphere NH 3 NO 3 - and NO 2 - Section 3-3 NITROGEN CYCLE BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006

49 Bacteria that live ______________ also carry out the reverse process ___________ → _____________. THIS PROCESS IS CALLED _________________

50 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE Weathering wears away rocks and sediments and releases phosphate into soil and water Image from: Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall Producers absorb phosphate from soil and water Phosphate moves through food web Phosphate returns to soil and water from waste or decomposition Sediments form “new land” to complete cycle

51 Phosphorus cycle is only biogeochemical cycle that does NOT cycle through the ______________ BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006

52 WHY IS PHOSPHORUS IMPORTANT? Image by Riedell Makes __________________ __________________ as ATP Makes _____________for cell membranes Image by Riedell


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