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Chapter 03 Service Strategy McGraw-Hill/Irwin Service Management: Operations, Strategy, and Information Technology, 6e Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 03 Service Strategy McGraw-Hill/Irwin Service Management: Operations, Strategy, and Information Technology, 6e Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 03 Service Strategy McGraw-Hill/Irwin Service Management: Operations, Strategy, and Information Technology, 6e Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2 Learning Objectives Formulate a strategic service vision. Discuss the competitive environment of services. Describe how a service competes using the three generic service strategies. Explain what is meant by qualifiers, service winners, and service losers. Discuss the competitive role of information in services. Explain the concept of the virtual value chain and its role in service innovation. Identify potential limits in the use of information as a competitive strategy. Categorize a service firm according to its stage of competitiveness. 3-2

3 Strategic Service Vision Target Market Segments What are common characteristics of important market segments? What dimensions can be used to segment the market, demographic, psychographic? How important are various segments? What needs does each have? How well are these needs being served, in what manner, by whom? 3-3

4 Strategic Service Vision Service Concept What are important elements of the service to be provided, stated in terms of results produced for customers? How are these elements supposed to be perceived by the target market segment, by the market in general, by employees, by others? How do customers perceive the service concept? What efforts does this suggest in terms of the manner in which the service is designed, delivered, marketed? 3-4

5 Strategic Service Vision Operating Strategy What are important elements of the strategy: operations, financing, marketing, organization, human resources, control? On which will the most effort be concentrated? Where will investments be made? How will quality and cost be controlled: measures, incentives, rewards? What results will be expected versus competition in terms of, quality of service, cost profile, productivity, morale/loyalty of servers? 3-5

6 Strategic Service Vision Service Delivery System What are important features of the service delivery system including: role of people, technology, equipment, layout, procedures? What capacity does it provide, normally, at peak levels? To what extent does it, help insure quality standards, differentiate the service from competition, provide barriers to entry by competitors? 3-6

7 Southwest Airlines Strategic Service Vision Service Delivery SystemOperating StrategyService ConceptTarget Market Segment Fun cabin atmosphere to differentiate service Use only Boeing 737 aircraft to control maintenance and operating costs Hire cabin crew based on attitude Quick turnaround at gate results in high utilization of aircraft No assigned seating rewards punctuality and promotes on-time performance Short flights with frequent departures Serve peanuts and soft drinks only Use of inner-city or low traffic airports avoids congestion Carry-on luggage State of Texas residents Business traveler who drives because of inadequate service Inexpensive family travel on weekends 3-7

8 Competitive Environment of Services Relatively Low Overall Entry Barriers Economies of Scale Limited High Transportation Costs Erratic Sales Fluctuations No Power Dealing with Buyers or Suppliers Product Substitutions for Service High Customer Loyalty Exit Barriers 3-8

9 Competitive Service Strategies (Overall Cost Leadership) Seeking Out Low-cost Customers Standardizing a Custom Service Reducing the Personal Element in Service Delivery (promote self-service) Reducing Network Costs (hub and spoke) Taking Service Operations Off-line 3-9

10 Competitive Service Strategies (Differentiation) Making the Intangible Tangible (memorable) Customizing the Standard Product Reducing Perceived Risk Giving Attention to Personnel Training Controlling Quality Note: Differentiation in service means being unique in brand image, technology use, features, or reputation for customer service. 3-10

11 Competitive Service Strategies (Focus) Buyer Group: (e.g. USAA insurance and military officers) Service Offered: (e.g. Shouldice Hospital and hernia patients) Geographic Region: (e.g. Austin Cable Vision and TV watchers) 3-11

12 Customer Criteria for Selecting a Service Provider Availability(24 hour ATM) Convenience(Site location) Dependability(On-time performance) Personalization(Know customer’s name) Price(Quality surrogate) Quality(Perceptions important) Reputation(Word-of-mouth) Safety(Customer well-being) Speed(Avoid excessive waiting) 3-12

13 Winning Customers in the Marketplace Service Qualifier: To be taken seriously a certain level must be attained on the competitive dimension, as defined by other market players. Examples are cleanliness for a fast food restaurant or safe aircraft for an airline. Service Winner: The competitive dimension used to make the final choice among competitors. Example is price. Service Loser: Failure to deliver at or above the expected level for a competitive dimension. Examples are failure to repair auto (dependability), rude treatment (personalization) or late delivery of package (speed). 3-13

14 Competitive Role of Information in Services Strategic Focus Competitive Use of Information On-line Off-line (Real time) (Analysis) Creation of barriers to entry: Data base asset: External Reservation system Selling information (Customer) Frequent user club Development of services Switching costs Micro-marketing Revenue generation: Productivity enhancement: Internal Yield management Inventory status (Operations) Point of sale Data envelopment Expert systems analysis (DEA) 3-14

15 The Virtual Value Chain Marketplace vs Marketspace Creating New Markets Using Information (Gather, Organize, Select, Synthesize, and Distribute) Three Stage Evolution 1st Stage (Visibility): See physical operations more effectively with information – Ex. USAA “paperless operation” 2 nd Stage (Mirroring Capability): Substitute virtual activities for physical – Ex. USAA “automate underwriting” 3 rd Stage (New Customer Relationships): Draw on information to deliver value to customer in new ways – Ex. USAA “event oriented service” 3-15

16 Limits in the Use of Information Anti-competitive (e.g. Barrier to entry) Fairness (e.g. Yield management) Invasion of Privacy (e.g. Micro- marketing) Data Security (e.g. Medical records) Reliability (e.g. Credit report) 3-16

17 Using Information to Categorize Customers Coding grades customers on how profitable their business is. Routing is used by call centers to place customers in different queues based on customer code. Targeting allows choice customers to have fees waived and get other hidden discounts. Sharing data about your transaction history with other firms is a source of revenue. 3-17

18 Stages in Service Firm Competitiveness 1. Available for service 2. Journeyman 3. Distinctive competence 4. World-class service delivery Customers patronize service Customers neither seek Customers seek out the firm The company’s name is synonymous firm for reasons other than out nor avoid the firm. on the basis of its sustained with service excellence. Its service performance. reputation for meeting doesn’t just satisfy customers; it customer expectations delights them and thereby expands customer expectations to levels its competitors are unable to fulfill. Operations is reactive, Operations functions in a Operations continually excels, Operations is a quick learner and fast at best. mediocre, uninspired reinforced by personnel innovator; it masters every step of the fashion. management and systems service delivery process and provides that support an intense capabilities that are superior to customer focus. competitors. SERVICE QUALITY Is subsidiary to cost, Meets some customer Exceeds customer Raises customer expectations and highly variable. expectations; consistent expectations; consistent seeks challenge; improves on one or two key on multiple dimensions. continuously. dimensions. 3-18

19 Stages in Service Firm Competitiveness 1. Available for service 2. Journeyman 3. Distinctive competence 4. World-class service delivery BACK OFFICE Counting room. Contributes to service, plays Is equally valued with front Is proactive, develops its own an important role in the total office; plays integral role. capabilities, and generates service, is given attention, opportunities. but is still a separate role. CUSTOMER Unspecified, to be A market segment whose A collection of individuals A source of stimulation, ideas, satisfied at minimum cost. basic needs are understood. whose variation in needs is and opportunity. understood. INTRODUCTION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY When necessary for When justified by cost When promises to enhance Source of first-mover advantages, survival, under duress. savings. service. creating ability to do things your competitors can’t do. WORKFORCE Negative constraint. Efficient resource; disciplined; Permitted to select among Innovative; creates procedures. follows procedures. alternative procedures. FRONT-LINE MANAGEMENT Controls workers. Controls the process. Listens to customers; coaches Is listened to by top management and facilitates workers. as a source of new ideas. Mentors works to enhance their career. 3-19

20 Alamo Drafthouse Positioning MOVIE SELECTION FOOD QUALITY ManyFew Poor Good 3-20

21 Alamo Drafthouse Strategic Service Vision Target market segments Service concept Operating strategy Service delivery system 3-21

22 Alamo Drafthouse Winning Customers Qualifiers Service winners Service losers Make recommendations for Tim and Carrie that would increase profitability. 3-22

23 Discussion Topics 1. Give examples of service firms that use both the strategy of focus and differentiation and the strategy of focus and overall cost leadership. 2. What ethical issues are associated with micro- marketing? 3. For each of the three generic strategies (i.e., cost leadership, differentiation, and focus) which of the four competitive uses of information is most powerful? 4. Give an example of a firm that begin as world-class and has remained in that category. 5. Could firms in the “world-class service delivery” stage of competitiveness be described as “learning organizations”? 3-23

24 Interactive Class Exercise The class divides and debates the proposition “Frequent flyer award programs are or are not anticompetitive.” 3-24

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