2After the freeing of their slaves, how did British and other plantation colonies fill their needs for labor? Where did the laborers come from?After emancipation, plantation colonies continued to need new laborers.Most older colonies needed to replace the emancipated workers who refused to return to the plantations.Some colonies with few freed slaves or no tradition of slaves needed workers in order to expand operations.Many Africans, Chinese, Indians, and Pacific Islanders were recruited and signed contracts ranging from five to seven years as indentured laborers.In the West Indies, the demand for new workers stemmed in part from the refusal of emancipated slaves to work.High mortality and low birthrates increased the need for additional workers. Some Africans who were recruited for work on plantations had been rescued from slave ships by the Royal Navy’s antislavery squadrons.Still, the number of Africans was fairly low, as was the number of Chinese workers, who went primarily to Cuba.Most indentured laborers came from India—a British colony—and were sent to British colonies and those of other nations around the world.Crucial to the movement of such large numbers of workers was the development of larger and faster ships.
3Those Muslim scholars called for a jihad against the rulers. Discuss the process by which the Zulu and the Sokoto Caliphate were created. How typical were these examples of African state-building in this era?These African states were founded by African leaders in response to internal conditions, and not by European or other outside pressures.For instance, the African societies that were transformed into the Zulu arose from environmental crises that created conflict over grazing and farming lands.Shaka’s military leadership brought neighboring groups under centralized control.Military regiments based on age groups helped expand the Zulu kingdom.The Zulu in turn fostered the creation of other states—states that were formed in opposition to the power of the Zulu.Some examples include the modern nations of Swaziland and Lesotho. New states in West Africa also came about because of internal conditions.Likewise, the Sokoto Caliphate was created by West African Islamic reformers who denounced existing West African Muslim rulers for allowing non-Muslim religious practices and observances to continue.Those Muslim scholars called for a jihad against the rulers.Islamic reformers also founded other new Islamic nations in West Africa.
4This new empire building was focused on dominating trade. By the middle of the nineteenth century, the nature and size of Britain’s overseas empire had changed dramatically. Describe the changes that took place between 1750 and 1850, using the eastern part of the empire as an example. Include Australia and New Zealand in your answer, and explain why those colonies were unusual in this period.Technological advances in ships and shipping, together with the rise of free trade and the decline of mercantilism, altered the British Empire in fundamental ways.In spite of losing most of its North American colonies through revolution, Britain continued to defeat rivals for other overseas colonies in the decades after 1750.This new empire building was focused on dominating trade.Cape Colony in southern Africa is a good example.British interests in the Cape served as a base for long-distance trade to India.Britain’s small holdings elsewhere in Africa were also concerned with controlling trade with those areas.Australia and New Zealand were different from Britain’s African and Indian colonies in that they were intended as areas of European settlement.In this respect, Australia and New Zealand resembled the former British colonies in North America.As settler colonies, Australia and New Zealand were allowed more political freedom and independence than colonies in Africa or India.In granting Australia and New Zealand more autonomy, Britain hoped to retain the loyalty of these settlers.
5What was the nature of European contact with North Africa between 1800 and 1870? Contacts with Europeans varied from peaceful relations to full-scale invasions.In Egypt, Napoleon’s occupation made Egyptian leaders aware of the need to modernize and militarize the country’s military and government to meet future European threats.However, over-reliance on cotton exports and too rapid expansion of industry created an Egyptian state indebted to and partly controlled by the British.Ethiopia mended its internal divisions toward the end of the nineteenth century and also rushed to modernize its military.An ill-advised Ethiopian capture of British officials prompted an invasion and temporary occupation by British troops.Algeria was initially friendly with France and supplied Napoleon with grain for his Egyptian invasion in 1798.French failure to accede to Algerian demands for repayment resulted in the French invasion in 1830 and the occupation of Algeria was completed by 1848
6To what extent were the peoples of Africa and Asia “victims” or “losers” in the story of imperialism?This is a complex issue.Although European imperialism is a profoundly disruptive force economically, politically and culturally in Africa and Asia, there was collaboration between Europeans and African and Asian elites.Therefore many indigenous peoples benefited along with the Europeans from imperialism.Also, while European imperialism was disruptive, many were beginning to use European education and technology to transform their societies.Lastly, indigenous cultures remained vibrant and resisted European policies as is demonstrated by the Sepoy Mutiny.Africans and Asians continued to shape their own future in spite of the growing dominance of Europe.
7How did West Africans react to the end of the Atlantic slave trade? African reaction was gradual, as was the suppression of the slave trade itself.Suppression began in 1808 and continued until the trade finally ended in 1867.Whereas the British and the Americans were among the first to prevent their citizens from engaging in the importation of slaves, the Spanish and Portuguese continued the flow of Africans to the Americas.Even as the trade declined, the value of trade between Africa and the Atlantic continents continued to climb rapidly.West Africans substituted numerous “legitimate” exports to replace slaves, particularly palm oil, gold, and ivory.Still, many African states had come to depend on exporting slaves and tried to convince European countries to continue the trade.West Africans also used slaves internally.For example, slave labor contributed significantly to the transport of palm oil.Thus, the end of the slave trade led to many changes in West Africa.
8The new military technology promoted further interaction. What impact did industrialization have on the process of colonization in Africa & Asia?European colonization of Africa and Asia was heavily affected by the reality of industrialization.The economic motives that industrialization created for European states required them to seek out resources and labor and a place to sell their goods.European states needed markets for manufactured goods as well as a source for raw materials such as rubber, palm oil, iron ore, cotton, and many other products.In addition, these highly populated Asian and Africa locations provided “customers” to purchase these goods (although most did not have the means to do so).The new military technology promoted further interaction.The military and maritime capacity of industrially produced weapons and clipper ships that made travel and conquest possible.
9The British struggle for power in India had several phases. After the establishment of the British East India Company (EIC) in 1600, it took Britain over 250 years to gain complete control of India. How did Britain extend its control?The British struggle for power in India had several phases.First, Britain needed to defeat the Dutch and French interests and to overcome Indian and Mughal resistance.The EIC encountered a Mughal Empire fragmented into many states.The EIC used hired Indian troops, sepoys, to establish its power. It secured Indian territory region by region, either by forming alliances with Indian rulers or by asserting direct control with military force.Indian tax revenues and company profits combined to finance EIC efforts.By 1818, the EIC controlled a large Indian empire and instituted political reform to consolidate the government.It disarmed the citizenry, encouraged agriculture and selected industries, and promoted private property rather than India’s complex pattern of landholdings.The British supported and created new customs and “traditions,” which were meant to maintain the social and political hierarchies and thus consolidated British power.In the aftermath of the 1857 sepoy uprising, Britain had complete control, confirmed by Queen Victoria’s proclamation in 1858.
10What was the nature of the “secondary empires” in eastern Africa in the 19th century? The effects of the slave trade, agriculture, and ivory exports established new East African empires.They are referred to as “secondary empires” because the Europeans supplied weapons and had a high demand for African goods but did not control these states directly as they did in other places.Created and controlled by Arabs and Africans, these East African empires came into being partly as a result of the suppression of the West African slave trade.Reacting to British pressure, slave traders moved around the Cape of Good Hope into eastern Africa.Although twice as many African slaves were sold through the well-established North African and Middle Eastern trade than exported to the Americas, the numbers were still substantial.Slavery within eastern Africa also remained significant, with 700,000 slaves working on clove plantations.Those agricultural plantations and the burgeoning ivory trade resulted in the establishment of new and strengthened African states.
11The rebellion of 1857–1858 was a turning point in the history of modern India. How did the political reform, industrialism, and nationalism in the years following 1858 contribute to in creating the modern Indian state.Various changes were brought about by the Indian rebellion in 1857–1858, as a reaction to the force of nationalism and protectionism on behalf of the BritishIn addition to gaining a centralized government and national consciousness, Indians enjoyed the economic growth that accompanied tremendous improvements in transportation and infrastructure. In the government, Mughal and EIC rule ended, and a British governor-general took control.Indians were promised equal protection under the law.The elite Indian Civil Service controlled government administration and the judiciary.The British government invested heavily in the upgrading of harbors, waterways, and roads; it also felled forests to expand agriculture.Steamboats, telegraphs, and railroads expanded at rapid rates, and the economy boomed. However, there were still drawbacks.Some Indian craftworkers lost their jobs in the face of rising British imports, and the new centralized government was dominated by British interests.Many Indians lamented the failure of the 1857 rebellion and argued that ridding India of ethnic and religious divisions was the only way to unite the country under Indian leadership and achieve independence.Rammohun Roy’s Brahmo Samaj (Divine Society) was one example of an early nationalist group, which combined Western secular values and learning with traditional Indian culture.