Presentation on theme: "The Reformation Find out more about Henry VIII’s problems, the Reformation and how it affected people…."— Presentation transcript:
The Reformation Find out more about Henry VIII’s problems, the Reformation and how it affected people….
The year is 1530 and Henry has a lot on his mind …. Click on him to find out what he is thinking. The Church and the monasteries The Struggle for Money and Power They are very wealthy They are very powerful They are too corrupt & greedy They are under the control of the Pope in Rome The Catholic church does not allow divorce They have lots of money and influence I need to have them on my side I need their help Powerful nobles See Henry’s Problems!
What do I do? Henry’s Problems… PROBLEM 1: I have no son to take over when I die Henry’s wife Catherine of Aragon had given him a daughter, Mary, but no son. Catherine had had several miscarriages and it was clear that the chances of her giving birth to a healthy son were small. Henry believed that to make sure the Tudor dynasty survived he had to have a son. But to have a son he needed a new wife. And to get a new wife he needed a divorce. Only the Pope, the head of the church, could give him a divorce. PROBLEM 2: I have run out of money Henry was bankrupt. He wanted to be powerful in Europe. He had already fought some very expensive wars in Europe and desperately needed more money to continue his campaigns. His personal life was also very expensive.
The Solution! How did people react to Henry’s changes? 4. He dealt severely with any opposition. Once Henry had control of the church he persecuted those who opposed him. He even cut off the head of his close friend Thomas More when he refused to accept Henry as the head of the church. In Lincolnshire he dealt severely with people who were involved in the Lincolnshire Rising. Study the resources to find out more about the Lincolnshire Rising 2. He gave himself a divorce. He divorced Catherine of Aragon and married Anne Boleyn. Anne was already pregnant and Henry hoped that she would give him a son. 3. He took over the monasteries. Between 1536 and 1539 Henry closed all the monasteries, taking all their valuables and land. This brought him an enormous amount of money. Much of the monastic land passed to his supporters who mostly either demolished the monastery buildings or converted them into country houses. Find out what this meant for a Lincolnshire monastery… 1. Henry cut all ties with Rome and created a new Church of England with himself as its head. From now on all priests and monks had to do what Henry said, not what the Pope said.
How did people react to Henry’s changes? Click on each person to find out …… Lincolnshire Rising Rebel Catherine of Aragon Ordinary people Monks & Priests Rich people Thomas Cromwell Thomas Cranmer Henry VIIIAnne Boleyn
How did people react to Henry’s changes? Lincolnshire Rising Rebel Did I benefit or lose out? We disagreed with the dissolution of the monasteries and made our protests known to the King in no uncertain terms. None of our demands were met. Some of our leaders were severely punished. Even some people who did not actually join us suffered. Lord Hussey was executed because the King thought that he had not tried hard enough to stop our protests. The King will be keeping a very close eye on Lincolnshire from now on.
How did people react to Henry’s changes? Catherine of Aragon Did I benefit or lose out? The King divorced me because I was not able to give him, a son and married Anne Boleyn instead. He declared that our marriage had been unlawful, which meant that our daughter, Mary, was illegitimate. Mary and I were not allowed to see each other. (We managed to write to each other sometimes in secret though).
How did people react to Henry’s changes? Did we benefit or lose out? Rich People Many of Lincolnshire’s wealthy families who have been loyal to the King have been able to take possession of land that used to belong to the monasteries. This has brought us more wealth and power. Some of us have been busy building expensive and fashionable houses.
How did people react to Henry’s changes? Did I benefit or lose out? King Henry VIII By confiscating the monasteries’ wealth I was able to solve many of my money worries. I was also able to strengthen my support around the country by transferring the monasteries’ lands to people who were loyal to me. By creating the new Church of England I was able to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. I had hoped that she would give me a son but that did not happen so I executed her and married Jane Seymour instead. Jane gave me the son that I wanted but she died after she had given birth to him.
How did people react to Henry’s changes? Did I benefit or lose out? Monks and Priests The closure of the monasteries has been a huge upheaval to our lives, and many of us are worse off as a result. Women who used to be nuns have found it particularly difficult. Some of us left the monasteries with nothing and have had to find other ways of supporting ourselves, but some of us (mainly people who had positions of responsibility in the monasteries) have been given pensions and many have found new positions as priests in parish churches. Some people have left the church altogether and are now working in other jobs such as schoolmasters, weavers and tanners.
How did people react to Henry’s changes? Did we benefit or lose out? Ordinary People Some better off people have been able to buy more land of their own and have improved their situation. Although some people used to complain that the rents that they had to pay were too high, many families had been tenant farmers on monastery lands for generations, so they were worried about what would happen to their livelihoods when the monasteries were closed. The monasteries used to provide charity and support for the poor and the sick but this help has now been removed.
How did people react to Henry’s changes? Did I benefit or lose out? Anne Boleyn Because of the Reformation I was able to marry the King and have my daughter, Elizabeth. After Elizabeth I had two miscarriages. One of the babies that I lost was a boy. The King decided that he needed a new wife after this and I was tried for treason and executed.
How did people react to Henry’s changes? Did I benefit or lose out? Thomas Cramner I became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1533. I am a Protestant and helped Henry VIII to divorce Catherine of Aragon and to marry Anne Boleyn. I also helped to get the bible translated into English and to write the Book of Common Prayer. For many years I was therefore very successful. However, when the Catholic Mary became queen in 1553 I was forced to publicly proclaim that my Protestant beliefs were wrong. Even though I did this I was still tried and found guilty of treason, and was burned to death in 1556.
How did people react to Henry’s changes? Did I benefit or lose out? Thomas Cromwell I was very close to the King and helped him make himself head of the English church, to close the monasteries and to divorce Catherine of Aragon. As a reward I was created Earl of Essex in 1540. My downfall came when I persuaded Henry to agree to marry Anne of Cleves. Their marriage was a disaster and Henry withdrew his support from me and charged me with treason. I was executed at the Tower of London on 28 July 1540.
What did this mean for Tupholme Abbey? How did people react to Henry’s changes? Following the Dissolution of the monasteries their lands and buildings passed into new ownership. Some families who took over monastic properties demolished the buildings and some converted them to country houses. Tupholme Abbey passed to Sir Thomas Heneage of Hainton in 1538. Sir Thomas decided that he would turn the abbey into a grand Tudor mansion for his daughter Elizabeth and her new husband William Willoughby. He did this by adapting some of the existing abbey buildings including the south refectory range, and he also retained the abbey gatehouse, but it is likely that the church itself was demolished at this time. He laid out an elaborate Tudor garden around the house. Tudor gardens tended to be very formal and were set out in orderly enclosed compartments. The remains of this landscaping are evident in the earthworks on the site. Many more changes have taken place at Tupholme Abbey since it was converted into the Heneages’ Tudor mansion but a fragment of the original medieval abbey still survives. To find out more: Study the Tudor Houses in Lincolnshire notes Download the Tupholme Abbey education pack at http://www.lincsheritage.org/education/tupholme/index.php http://www.lincsheritage.org/education/tupholme/index.php See the Tupholme Abbey timeline. During the medieval period Lincolnshire as a county was particularly rich in monastic establishments, and the Witham Valley beyond Lincoln was remarkable for the concentration of monasteries lying alongside it. Within a distance of about 16 miles there were 9 abbeys, one of which was Tupholme Abbey. Tupholme was one of the earliest casualties of the Dissolution. It closed in 1536.