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Shakespeare: His Life and Times Adapted from

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1 Shakespeare: His Life and Times Adapted from

2 Early Life Born 1564—died 1616 Stratford-upon-Avon Parents: John and Mary Arden Shakespeare Mary—daughter of wealthy landowner John—glovemaker, local politician

3 From: Location of Stratford-upon-Avon

4 As reproduced in William Rolfe, Shakespeare the Boy (1896). Stratford-on-Avon in Shakespeare’s Time

5 From Stratford’s web site: Stratford-upon-Avon Today

6 From: Shakespeare’s Birthplace

7 Probably attended King’s New School in Stratford His school day was long and rigorous Educated in: -Rhetoric -Logic -History -Latin Shakespeare dropped out of ‘middle school’ when his father lost his fortune Education

8 From: King’s New School

9 Married in 1582 to Anne Hathaway, who was pregnant at the time with their first daughter Had twins in 1585- Hamnet & Judith Hamnet died from the plague at age 11 Sometime between 1583-1592, he moved to London and began working in theatre. The years 1583-1592 are know as ‘The Lost Years’ No one know where he was, or what he was doing during those years Married Life

10 From: Anne Hathaway’s Cottage

11 Member and later part-owner of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, later called the King’s Men Globe Theater built in 1599 with Shakespeare as primary investor Burned down in 1613 during one of Shakespeare’s plays Theatre Career

12 Drama in England Under the rule of Elizabeth I, England became a world power Defeated the Spanish Armada Became unsurpassed in theater Public theaters were disapproved of by the Puritans and so had to be placed outside the London city limits.

13 The Rebuilt Globe Theater, London

14 More About the Theater Orchestra was generally on stage Designed not just for the elite but for all classes of society Few props, no backgrounds Wore clothing of the time, usually donated from the royal patron Less formal, more like a nightclub than now

15 The Globe Theater

16 The Plays 38 plays firmly attributed to Shakespeare 14 comedies 10 histories 10 tragedies 4 romances Possibly wrote three others Collaborated on several others

17 General Play Characteristics Comedies –Wit and irony –Disguises and mistaken identities –Convoluted plots –Contrived endings Histories –Based off English history –Power struggles –Uses history to reflect contemporary issues of the time Tragedies –Main character with a tragic flaw –The flaw often a part of the character’s greatness and downfall –Alienation and scheming Romances –Conflict/injustice that occurred a long time ago is resolved –Repentance –Extraordinary circumstances –Supernatural events –Reunification

18 Two major poems Venus and Adonis Rape of Lucrece 154 Sonnets Numerous other poems The Poetry

19 Shakespeare’s Death Shakespeare died on April 23 rd, 1616 Not exactly sure what he died from –History says he drank too much wine and ate too many pickled herrings In his will, Shakespeare left money, horses, stables, etc. to his two sons-in-law But only left his wife one thing- the “second-best bed” –Was he trying to make a point?

20 Shakespeare’s Death Shakespeare is buried in Holy Trinity Church in his birth village of Stratford. His grave is covered by a flat stone that bears an epitaph warning of a curse to come upon anyone who moves his bones.

21 Shakespeare’s Language Shakespeare did NOT write in “Old English.” Old English is the language of Beowulf: Hwaet! We Gardena in geardagum Þeodcyninga Þrym gefrunon Hu ða æÞelingas ellen fremedon!

22 Shakespeare’s Language Shakespeare did not write in “Middle English.” Middle English is the language of Chaucer, the Gawain-poet, and Malory: We redeth oft and findeth y-write— And this clerkes wele it wite— Layes that ben in harping Ben y-founde of ferli thing… (Sir Orfeo)

23 Shakespeare’s Language Shakespeare wrote in “Early Modern English.” EME was not very different from “Modern English,” except that it had some old holdovers.

24 Shakespeare’s Language Shakespeare coined many words we still use today: Critical Majestic Dwindle And quite a few phrases as well: One fell swoop Flesh and blood Vanish into thin air See

25 Shakespeare’s Language A mix of old and very new Rural and urban words/images Understandable by the lowest peasant and the highest noble

26 Elizabethan Theatrical Conventions

27 A theatrical convention is a suspension of reality.  No electricity  Women forbidden to act on stage  Minimal, contemporary costumes  Minimal scenery These control the dialogue.

28 Audience loves to be scared.  Soliloquy  Aside Types of speech  Blood and gore  Use of supernatural

29  Use of disguises/ mistaken identity  Multiple marriages (in comedies)  Multiple murders (in tragedies)  Last speaker—highest in rank (in tragedies)

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