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1 THE GUJARAT EARTHQUAKE RECONSTRUCTION EXPERIENCE: 2001-04 CIVIL SERVICE DAY 2007 Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi 21 April 2007 Dr. P.K Mishra Secretary to Government.

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Presentation on theme: "1 THE GUJARAT EARTHQUAKE RECONSTRUCTION EXPERIENCE: 2001-04 CIVIL SERVICE DAY 2007 Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi 21 April 2007 Dr. P.K Mishra Secretary to Government."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 THE GUJARAT EARTHQUAKE RECONSTRUCTION EXPERIENCE: 2001-04 CIVIL SERVICE DAY 2007 Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi 21 April 2007 Dr. P.K Mishra Secretary to Government of India Department of Agriculture & Cooperation

2 2 CONTENTS The devastation Reconstruction: programme outcomes Processes and innovation Mitigation and preparedness measures An analysis: how and why The larger impact

3 DEVASTATION: A TERRIBLE HUMAN TRAGEDY Lives lost 13,805 167,000 persons suffered injury Over 2,22,035 houses completely destroyed and 9,17,158 houses damaged Over 10,000 small and medium industrial units went out of production 50,000 artisans lost their livelihood

4 4 Photo by : Ashok B. Trivedi

5 5


7 7 Housing  Reconstruction of 2,00,218 houses (90%) completed  Repair of 9,08,751 houses (99%) completed Social Infrastructure Education Infrastructure  44,218 (100%) school rooms repaired  12,750 (100%) school rooms reconstructed  13,000 new additional school rooms reconstructed Health Infrastructure  Repair & Reconstruction of 1,107 health structures Livelihood Restoration  Restoration of livelihood of over 200,000 families working in agriculture and village / cottage industries etc Social Rehabilitation  Setting of orphanages, assistance to paraplegics, pension to widows and old aged, artificial limbs to handicapped etc PROGRAMME OUTCOMES

8 8 Public Infrastructure Power  Strengthening of 8,903 km (90%) of transmission and distribution lines completed Roads & Bridges  Repair/Reconstruction of 4,134 km (98%) of state highways and rural roads completed  All 179 bridges reconstructed Rural Water Supply  2,615 km (96%) of water supply pipelines laid Dam Safety & Irrigation  181 dams (82%) have been strengthened Urban Infrastructure  349 Km (100%) of urban roads completed  333 Km (93%) of sewerage pipelines have been laid  700 Km ( 99.7%) of water supply pipelines have been laid  171 (99%) new municipal buildings have been reconstructed out of 173 Public Buildings  2,758 ( 99%) public buildings reconstructed  8,999 (98%) public buildings repaired  Retrofitting of 3534 undamaged buildings underway and 377 completed PROGRAMME OUTCOMES

9 HEALTH INFRASTRUCTURE Education - AfterHealth - After Health infrastructure damaged Health infrastructure reconstructed

10 10 HOUSES: REPAIR (97%)


12 RECONSTRUCTION OF HOUSES Before – Text/Photograph Owner-d riven Reconstruction (80%) PPP Reconstruction (20%) PPP HousingOwner-driven Housing


14 14 SCHOOL ROOMS: RECONSTRUCTION In addition to the 8212 destroyed classrooms, 3810 additional classrooms have been constructed (91%)

15 15 LIVELIHOOD RESTORATION  Livelihood of 77,587 beneficiaries could be restored through Working Capital Assistance to Handloom Weavers Toolkits to Handloom Weavers, Artisans, Handicraft Artisans, Masons Loan Subsidy to self-employed persons Handlooms and handicraft parks, Gramudyog vikas kendra sanctioned  1,83,793 farmers have benefited through Input kits Pucca Structure on Farms Irrigation Assets

16 16 LIVELIHOOD RESTORATION  187,284 industrial units benefited through Cash Assistance to Small Cabins & Shops Subsidy assistance for small industrial units Subsidy and interest subsidy given for service & trade units  Rehabilitation of 69 affected tourism units

17 LIVELIHOOD RESTORATION Restored livelihood of over 200,000 families (Agriculture, Industry including Cottage Industry)

18 18 Owner Driven Reconstruction ( 80%)  Owner was the prime mover of the reconstruction process and reconstruction as per the need, pace and will of the owner  Government provided material, technical and financial assistance  A sense of acceptance and ownership leading to higher occupancy  Knowledge transfer resulting in long-term disaster management capacity building Public Private Partnership Programme (20%)  Partnership with 80 NGOs on a 50% cost sharing basis with government  Community through Gram Sabha to approve NGO involvement HOUSING RECOVERY APPROACH

19 19 HOUSING RECOVERY INNOVATIVE ASPECTS RISK TRANSFER  Insurance to 14 types of hazards for 10 years at premium of Rs.367 deducted from the last financial installment by the state ENSURING STANDARDS  Multi-hazard resistant reconstruction  Payment of installments after engineers’ certification  Third party quality audit by National Council for Cement and Building Materials (NCCBM) RESOURCE ASSISTANCE  Payment made directly in bank accounts - 6,60,000 bank accounts opened  1,082 outlets opened - 219 lakh cement bags distributed apart from steel at subsidized cost  Excise duty / Sales tax exemption for building materials procured in Kutch EQUITY  Joint ownership of house by husband and wife COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION  Largely Owner Driven  Minimal relocation  Choice of relocation decided by village community through gram sabha GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL  District Judge declared as Ombudsman and around 42,000 cases were re-solved

20 20 Task undertaken scientifically & methodically.. In 14 affected towns Task 2 Task 1 Relocation and Rehabilitation Preparation of Town Planning Schemes Infrastructure Development URBAN RECONSTRUCTION APPROACH Task 3 Task 4 Preparation of Development Plans

21 21 URBAN RECONSTRUCTION Programme implementation - Institutional arrangement  Designation of Gujarat Urban Development Company as implementation agency for procurement, design supervision and implementation  Setting up Area Development Authorities in the worst affected towns of Kutch to facilitate the development process and rehabilitation Programme design  Elaborate mapping done through 19 studies of the affected areas  Using existing legislations for preparation of Development Plans (DPs) and Town Planning Schemes (TPS) to lay the base for infrastructure design and implementation  Separate packages for procurement of town planning, infrastructure design and supervising, and detailed unit design consultants Community participation  1,800 consultative meetings conducted for incorporating public objections and suggestions in the development and town planning processes

22 22 Large central market area Market streets for pedestrians Well planned street network Proper access for all plots Existing Proposed Traditional markets on specific streets Traffic congestion No hierarchy of streets Plots have no proper access Source – Bhuj Development Plan: GERRP URBAN RECONSTRUCTION REPARATION OF 4 DEVELOPMENT PLANS

23 23 Source – Bhuj Development Plan: GERRP URBAN R ECONSTRUCTION PREPARATION OF 13 TOWN PLANNING SCHEMES Before the implementation of the Town Planning Scheme After the implementation of the Town Planning Scheme Previous plot layout New plot layout

24 24 Road network in periphery poor No clear pattern No hierarchy Poor quality of construction New roads for growth areas Ring - radial pattern Clearly defined hierarchy Better quality of construction Source – Bhuj Development Plan: GERRP URBAN RECONSTRUCTION ROAD NETWORK PLANNING Existing Proposed

25 25 City only partly served Inadequate supply Periphery has no piped supply Pipes in old city damaged Service to entire city Narmada drinking water New system for periphery Reconstruction of city networks ExistingProposed Source – Bhuj Development Plan: GERRP URBAN RECONSTRUCTION WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE NETWORK PLANNING

26 26 SEARCH & RESCUE  49 personnel trained in Search & Rescue at ICET, Netherlands and in Germany  The persons trained at ICET, in turn, would train 500 more first responders in the state. Three batches of 30 fire personnel have been trained.  Two batches of 30 fire officers/ firemen trained in flood rescue

27 27  Equipments received for the establishment of Emergency Response Unit (ERU) at Ahmedabad  Three sets of emergency equipments were procured for AMC, SMC and RMC. EMERGENCY RESPONSE  Emergency equipment to be procured for 90 municipalities and 10 industrial areas.

28 28 CAPACITY BUILDING-TRAINING  More than 29,000 masons trained in multi hazard resistant constructions & retrofitting techniques  6,200 engineers trained in multi-hazard resistant construction

29 29  Revised syllabus of all Engineering colleges to include seismic engineering.  Revised syllabus already adopted by all the engineering and polytechnic colleges.  Training programs for the teachers of Engg. Colleges on the revised curricula  Syllabi of schools revised for incorporating general awareness about Disaster Management CAPACITY BUILDING-EDUCATION

30 30 MITIGATION MEASURES - GUIDELINES  Guidelines for multi hazards resistant construction provided For several types of construction such as masonry, RCC structures, compressed mud earthen wall structures etc. Guidelines provided for using local materials in hazard-resistant construction Guidelines specifically for low cost reconstruction and retrofitting

31 31 AWARENESS CREATION  Four Shake Table demonstrations & video shows held for awareness generation & confidence building  Two Technical cassettes prepared on construction and retrofitting of houses  Audio and video cassettes prepared to create awareness through the medium of music and jokes, traditional folk art

32 32  DM made as a permanent agenda in Gramsabha conducted in 18000 villages “Do’s & Don'ts for EQ” circulated and discussed “Do’s & Don'ts for cyclone” circulated and discussed Need for safe construction Preparation of village level disaster response groups AWARENESS CREATION – GRAM SABHAS

33 33 OTHER ACTIVITIES ENVISAGED  Certification of masons and licensing of engineers  Provincial Fire Services  A seismic pavilion named “Planet We Live In” at Science City  Revision of Relief Manual

34 BENEFIT MONITORING Housing – Urban and Rural  93% G-5 beneficiaries occupied re-constructed and insured permanent houses  52% beneficiaries had separate toilets and 84% had separate kitchens  39% beneficiaries in the 4 towns lived in larger houses as compared to the pre-earthquake situation  85% newly constructed houses in the 4 towns had a road passing directly in front of them  23% more BPL families live in permanent houses Education  More than 90% students who dropped out in both primary and secondary schools have rejoined - no loss in academic year Livelihood  72% women surveyed have more income now compared to pre– earthquake time Source – BME (phase II), 2 nd sample survey report - 2004

35 35 WHAT GSDMA DID  Earthquake reconstruction work  Formulation of Act and policies  Preparation of DM plans  Preparedness initiatives  Capacity building  Mitigation measures  Awareness & community preparedness

36 36 SOME SALIENT ASPECTS  A comprehensive reconstruction and rehabilitation program  Progress during the first and second years no parallel elsewhere  Capacity building and information dissemination  Public-private partnership in a systematic manner; people’s participation  Medium and long-term perspective

37 FACTOR LEADING TO SUCCESS  Creation of a new institutional structure in the form of the Gujarat State Disaster Management (GSDMA)  A lean and efficient structure, extremely dedicated and committed personnel, professional approach and operational flexibility  Organizational interlinkages and optimal use of existing structures  Involvement of expertise and specialized knowledge of institutions and individuals  Commitment of the government at the highest level

38 38 MOST INFLUENTIAL POST-DISASTER RECONSTRUCTION INITIATIVE  A strong foundation for national level initiatives, e.g. Mitigation projects, changes in syllabus Capacity building in search & rescue Disaster Management Act, 2005 Creation of the National Disaster Management Authority Community-based disaster preparedness initiatives  Disaster Management Authorities in several States  Framework for post-disaster reconstruction in the context of Asian Tsunami 2004 and Kashmir earthquake 2005

39 RECOGNITION/AWARDS  GEERP awarded The Green Award by World Bank for successfully integrating environmental concerns in the Emergency Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Program for the year 2001  GSDMA awarded The Commonwealth Association for Public Administration & Management (CAPAM) GOLD Award for Innovations in Governance in 2004  GSDMA was awarded The United Nations Sasakawa Award for Disaster Reduction 2003

40 40 THE CAPAM AWARD CITATION The massive earthquake rehabilitation and reconstruction programme was a paradigm shift from the conventional approach of response, post-disaster mitigation and preparedness, and that each of the various initiatives like an owner- driven reconstruction programme, the role and involvement of community, the transparency and equity procedures, various capacity building initiatives taken up during the programme was innovation in governance by itself.


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