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All these quotes are from Napoleon. What do they tell you about him?  “Power is my mistress. I have worked too hard at her conquest to allow anyone to.

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Presentation on theme: "All these quotes are from Napoleon. What do they tell you about him?  “Power is my mistress. I have worked too hard at her conquest to allow anyone to."— Presentation transcript:

1 All these quotes are from Napoleon. What do they tell you about him?  “Power is my mistress. I have worked too hard at her conquest to allow anyone to take her away from me.”  “There are but two powers in the world, the sword and the mind. In the long run the sword is always beaten by the mind."  “Impossible is a word to be found only in the dictionary of fools.”  "He that makes war without many mistakes has not made war very long."  “Death is nothing, but to live defeated and inglorious is to die daily.”  “Ten people who speak make more noise than ten thousand who are silent.”  “History is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon”.  “I know when it is necessary, how to leave the skin of lion to take one of fox.”  “A man will fight harder for his interests than for his rights.”  “A throne is only a bench covered with velvet.”  “Religion is what keeps the poor from murdering the rich.”

2 The Rise and Fall of Napoleon’s Empire How does this Picture reflect the information you gathered from the quotes?

3 How about these two Pictures?

4 Church Representatives Empress Josephine

5 Napoleon’s Mistakes Effect on Empire Napoleon’s Empire Collapses 4 continued... Continental System Peninsular War Russian invasion Weakening of France Great loss of life and prestige Loss of much of army HOME

6 Napoleon Empire Collapses 3 Costly Mistakes The Continental System (blockade) Peninsular War (Guerillas) Invasion of Russia (Scorched Earth Policy)

7 Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes A)Continental System – blockade against Great Britain, destroy economy, make continental Europe more self-sufficient, Britain did it better… B)Peninsular War – French marched into Spain, took over govt., Spanish guerrilla forces attacked, French army severely weakened C)Napoleon establishes his relatives as kings in the countries he conquers. These people are not competent rulers. The citizens of these countries revolt.

8 D) Invasion of Russia – Meant to punish Czar for selling grain to England ,000 + French soldiers invade Russia Russians pull back and refuse to fight, practice scorched- earth policy, and burn Moscow down. Napoleon marched back to France in winter, lost his army to the cold. 20,000 walk out… “Swallows fell from the sky like stones, frozen in flight in the bitter cold…”

9 Napoleon’s Downfall Major powers attacked: England and Prussia 1814 – Napoleon surrendered at Liepzig, exiled to island of Elba New king unpopular, Napoleon escaped Elba, returns to France a Hero for 100 days and built a new army in 1815 Battle of Waterloo – Napoleon defeated by combined forces of Russia, Prussia, Austria Sweden and England St. Helena – Exiled until his death in 1821

10 The Continental System The British had recently become Europe’s greatest economic power since it had experienced the Industrial Revolution first. British factories powered by newly developed steam engines produced in large scale textiles and all kinds of manufactured goods. A huge fleet of merchant ships traded these low-cost goods for luxuries around the world. Napoleon planned to hurt the British by cutting off trade and money in their pockets. He wanted all the nations in European mainland to stop trading with Britain. Any British merchant ship that tried to sell its wares in a European port would have its cargo seized. This is what led to the War of 1812 between Britain and America, because America continued to trade with France.

11 The Continental System If the plan worked, the British economy would crash. Unemployed workers would rise up like the French Third Estate had and overthrow their British king. At the very least, the British would be forced to sign a peace treaty favorable to the French. This boycott was called the Continental System by Napoleon. He forced the Spanish, Prussians, Austrians, and Russians to be part of the British boycott.

12 Continental System To soothe Napoleon’s concerns and to help enforce the Continental System, Napoleon put his family members on the thrones of countries he had conquered. – Older brother Joseph made King of Naples and Sicily – Younger brother Louis made King of the Netherlands – Brother Jerome made King of Westphalia…a new kingdom of several German states created by Napoleon – His sister Elisa became Grand Duchess of Tuscany But despite this, Napoleon could not seem to keep British goods out of the continent. Merchants all over Europe ignored the blockade and secretly welcomed British ships into their ports. Some of the worst offenders were Spain and Portugal, whose combined 1,600 miles of coastline were impossible to police. This led to France deciding to invade Portugal from bases in Spain and forcing the Portugal family into flight in 1807.

13 Continental System (Economics) With Britain safe from attack, Napoleon turned more energetically to economic warfare In Nov 1806, he established the Continental System which sought to blockade the British Isles and close the ports of France and its satellites to ships coming from Britain or its colonies The idea was to ruin Britain’s trade-based economy by eliminating its chief market

14 Continental System Napoleon decided to attack the “nation of shopkeepers” by: – Starving Britain of money – Destroying British trade, particularly the re-export of colonial goods to Europe

15 The Continental System GOAL  to isolate Britain and promote Napoleon’s mastery over Europe. Berlin Decrees (1806) British ships were not allowed in European ports. No vessel coming directly from Britain or her colonies could enter a port under French control. “Order in Council” (1806) Britain proclaimed any ship stopping in Britain would be seized when it entered the Continent. Confined Europe’s trade to neutral shipping. Britain controlled and taxed the neutral trade with Europe by making all vessels proceed via British ports. Milan Decree (1807) Napoleon proclaimed any ship stopping in Britain would be seized when it entered the Continent. Any country obeying the British decrees would be punished by the French. These edicts eventually led to the United States declaring war on Britain  WAR OF 1812.

16 The Continental System

17 Continental System (Economics) Enforcing the Continental System proved difficult because: – Europeans had become reliant on cheap British goods – The British worked around the system through smuggling and bribery – The system hurt the French too

18 Effects of Continental System Worth of British exports declined by 5 million pounds in 2 years. Liverpool’s imports of raw cotton dropped from 143,000 sacks in 1807 to 23,000 sacks in 1808 In 1808, grain imports fell to 5% of their 1807 level Corn prices rose from 66 shillings a quarter in 1807 to 94 shillings a quarter in 1808 Reduced the demand for manufactured goods which led to low wages, shorter working times, and unemployment

19 Effects of the Continental System Continued In 1810, 5 British companies went bankrupt. Strikes broke out in Britain. By 1811, British exports to Europe fell to 20% of the 1810 level. Gold payments to Europe doubled between There were three bad harvests in a row in 1809, 1810, and This led to starvation. The British pound lost value and inflation spiked. A three day week was introduced in Lancashire.

20 Effects of Continental System Continued Napoleon failed to take full advantage of Britain’s partial economic collapse and allowed European grain to be sold in Britain for gold. Trade restrictions were lifted and smuggling began.

21 Effects of the Continental System on France French custom revenue fell European nations were starved for British colonial goods of coffee, sugar, tobacco, cocoa, and cotton textiles Imported goods were addictive luxuries and people resented the French for depriving them of these luxuries Replacement items of sugar beets and linen were not tolerated. The British blockade of European ports in retaliation led to a scarcity of goods.

22 Reasons for the Failure of the Continental System British Counter-Blockade of continental Europe Insufficient alternative means of transportation (i.e. alternatives to sea routes) Infant industries of mainland Europe unable to replace the previous supply of goods from Britain Britain made up for lost trade with Europe by finding new markets around the world British monopoly of many “luxury goods” Smuggling

23 Skip over navigation About Search Browse Cast Essay Timeline CDI Home A project of the Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection Box A Brown University Library Providence, RI Tel.: (401) Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection Developed & hosted by

24 British Cartoon: Napoleon the son of the Devil

25 Peninsular War (Guerrilla War) Napoleon’s efforts to enforce the Continental System eventually led him into battle on the Iberian Peninsula and later Russia – By the fall of 1807, all the nations of continental Europe except Portugal and Sweden had joined the Continental System – Napoleon arranged with the king of Spain to attack Portugal through Spain

26 The Spanish Ulcer: The Penisular War Spring 1808: Napoleon decided to crack down on Spain Invited the entire royal family of Spain to Paris for a visit and when they arrived, placed them under arrest He then made his brother Joseph trade his Italian crowns to become the King of Spain The Spanish people did not welcome the foreign Bonapartes as their rulers…NATIONALISM Instead they rose up in rebellion

27 The Spanish Ulcer For the first time in his military career, Napoleon seemed overmatched. The Spanish didn’t fight the kind of organized battles he had learned to dominate. Instead they used GUERRILLA WARFARE--- ambushing small parties of French troops whenever and wherever they could They slit drunken soldiers throats, poisoned food and wells, etc.. They refused to show themselves yet seemed to turn up everywhere

28 The Spanish Ulcer Napoleon watched his fearsome French army grow hungry and more fearful each day losing 100 men a day in Spain. But Napoleon’s ego had grown too big to realize his mistake. He now believed that great leaders should “never retreat, never retract…never admit a mistake.” The Penisular War, or “The Spanish Ulcer” as Napoleon called it lingered on and drained wealth, strength, and hope from Napoleon’s followers.

29 Spanish or Penisular Campaign Conquered Portugal in 1807; Spain in Spanish populace was hostile. Guerilla warfare – Locals provide intelligence. – Difficult to distinguish guerillas from civilians. – French (conventional) tactics vs. Spanish (guerilla) strategy – Surfaces and gaps? Entry of British regular forces eventually tipped the scales in favor of the Spaniards.

30 Peninsular Campaign: ePortugal did not comply with the Continental System. eFrance wanted Spain’s support to invade Portugal. eSpain refused, so Napoleon invaded Spain as well! eBy 1807, Napoleon had become determined to crush Britain and make his Continental System effective. eHe set out to conquer Portugal because it was Britain’s oldest ally and trading partner.  Spain Portugal France  1806: Continental System

31 Peninsular Campaign (ctd.) eBy the Convention of Fontainbleu in November 1807, the Spanish government agreed to allow a French army to pass through Spain to attack Portugal; in return, most of the conquered Portugal would become Spanish territory. eMarshal Junot and 20,000 troops were sent to capture Lisbon. eThe Portuguese royal family decided not to stay in their country and left immediately for their colony of Brazil the day before the French arrived in Lisbon. eIt took only the 1,500 French soldiers that were left of Junot’s force to accept the surrender of Portugal.

32 Peninsular Campaign (ctd.) It was unlikely that the Spanish would implement the Continental System effectively. Charles IV was aging and ineffectual; his wife, Queen Maria Luisa was a vicious adulteress with the First Minister, Godoy. Most Spaniards hated the three of them. Napoleon summoned the Royal Family to meet him in Bayonne where he persuaded them to hand over their claim to the Spanish crown. Napoleon then installed his brother Joseph as King of Spain. The result of this action was riots in Madrid and risings in each of the Spanish provinces that were led by the landed magnates and local clergy.

33 Peninsular War (Guerrilla War) Napoleon occupied Portugal easily but he was also becoming wary of Spain’s loyalty so he sent 127,000 troops into northern Spain and later forced the king and his son to abdicate in his favor Napoleon now controlled almost the entire European continent Napoleon made his brother Joseph the king of Spain

34 Peninsular War (Guerrilla War) A resistance movement erupted in Spain and the British also sent an expeditionary force to Portugal – Sir Arthur Wellesley (the future Duke of Wellington) commanded the British forces and compelled the French to evacuate Portugal – In Spain Napoleon grew increasingly frustrated why his traditional methods that had brought victory elsewhere were unable to crush what had become a “people’s war” led by clerics and minor government officials The Duke of Wellington

35 Peninsular Campaign (ctd.) Companies of Spanish volunteers were formed and any Frenchmen and/or supporters of the French regime were massacred. Napoleon had a poor opinion of the fighting capacity of the Spaniards and also he believed that a “whiff of grape-shot” would quell the fiercest of rioters when opposed by disciplined soldiery. Consequently, he underestimated the seriousness of the Spanish revolt. His troops were already stationed in the north-east and around Madrid, and he contented himself with sending and army under General Duport to deal with the disturbances in the west and south.

36 Peninsular Campaign (ct’d.) Duport soon found himself in difficulties, short of food amid a hostile population, with enemy forces gathering in ever increasing numbers. Afraid to admit his difficulties to Napoleon, he delayed his retreat until he was surrounded and forced to surrender with 20,000 men at Baylen in July, 1808.

37 “The Spanish Ulcer” aNapoleon tricked the Spanish king and prince to come to France, where he imprisoned them. aHe proclaimed his brother, Joseph, to be the new king of Spain. aHe stationed over 100,000 Fr troops in Madrid. aOn May 2, 1808 [Dos de Mayo] the Spanish rose up in rebellion. aFr troops fired on the crowd in Madrid the next day [Tres de Mayo]. aNapoleon tricked the Spanish king and prince to come to France, where he imprisoned them. aHe proclaimed his brother, Joseph, to be the new king of Spain. aHe stationed over 100,000 Fr troops in Madrid. aOn May 2, 1808 [Dos de Mayo] the Spanish rose up in rebellion. aFr troops fired on the crowd in Madrid the next day [Tres de Mayo].

38 “Third of May, 1808” by Goya (1810)

39 “The Spanish Ulcer” aNapoleon now poured 50, 000 troops into Spain over the next few years. aBut, the Fr generals still had trouble subduing the Spanish population. aThe British viewed this uprising as an opportunity to weaken Napoleon.  They moved an army into Portugal to protect that country and to aid the Spanish guerillas. aAfter 5 long years of savage fighting, Fr troops were finally pushed back across the Pyrennes Mountains out of Spain. aNapoleon now poured 50, 000 troops into Spain over the next few years. aBut, the Fr generals still had trouble subduing the Spanish population. aThe British viewed this uprising as an opportunity to weaken Napoleon.  They moved an army into Portugal to protect that country and to aid the Spanish guerillas. aAfter 5 long years of savage fighting, Fr troops were finally pushed back across the Pyrennes Mountains out of Spain. The Surrender of Madrid May, 1809 by Goya

40 Next Political Cartoon on Spanish Conflict In this apocalyptical scene, the figure of Spain (r.) attacks Corsica (l.), here represented as a seven-headed beast marked with the number "666." The crowns are inscribed Naples, Austria, Holland, Denmark, Russia, Prussia and France, indicating the territories at war with Spain. As Spain severs Napoleon's head from the beast's body, the crowns topple and fall towards the allegorical figure of Hope (center), who runs to catch the crowns in her apron. To the far left, a city, as well as the surrounding countryside, is obscured by flames. At the right of the sheet, help arrives by ship above which is inscribed "Admiral Purvis." Rowlandson incorporates other apocalyptical references into the title of the sheet outside the bottom border of the frame. Underneath Napoleon's name, spelled phonetically as "Napolean Bounaparte," the artist records the correspondence between the letters and their sequence in the alphabet. The sum of these letters, "666," is provided for the viewer.

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42 Peninsular War (Guerrilla War) The guerrilla war in Spain became a “bleeding ulcer” for Napoleon that eventually claimed the lives of some 300,000 Frenchmen Napoleon misunderstood the nature of the war and was never able to deal with both the guerrillas and Wellesley simultaneously So long as the British remained in Portugal, the Spanish guerrillas had hope and a source of supplies On June 21, 1813 Wellesley finally defeated the French at Vitoria and forced them out of Spain The loss of the Peninsular War was a major factor in the eventual collapse of Napoleon’s Empire

43 Napoleon’s Empire in 1810

44 Napoleon’s Family Rules! eJerome Bonaparte  King of Westphalia. eJoseph Bonaparte  King of Spain eLouise Bonaparte  King of Holland ePauline Bonaparte  Princess of Italy eNapoléon Francis Joseph Charles (son)  King of Rome eElisa Bonaparte  Grand Duchess of Tuscany eCaroline Bonaparte  Queen of Naples

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46 Napoleon’s Family & Friends/Allies

47 Invasion of Russia Too many rulers turned a blind eye to smugglers of low-priced British goods Tsar Alexander was convinced that the price of friendship with France was too high, because Russia was a poor country who needed Britain’s help to modernize On December 31, 1810, Tsar Alexander announced Russia would resume trade with Britain Napoleon was furious, and refused to acknowledge that he could not control the entire European continent.

48 Invasion of Russia In the past, Napoleon had always won his battles by moving faster and acting more boldly than his opponents. But Napoleon was invading Russia with an army of over 600, 000 soldiers that could not do anything quickly. The daily ration of food alone required 6,000 wagons. Each of these wagons needed horses to pull it. So did the heavy cannons of the artillery. A little rain and the entire army got stuck in mud for days.

49 Invasion of Russia According to Napoleon: “…the great proof of madness is the disproportion of one’s designs to one’s means.” This meant that anyone who tried to execute a widely ambitious plan without the resources needed to succeed was insane. But this was exactly what Napoleon was doing with the Russian invasion! Napoleon initially set aside a single month for his invasion of Russia. He was certain the war was his to win if he could just maneuver the Russian army into a decisive battle. But the Russians refused to fight.

50 Invasion of Russia The invasion became what one historian describes as…”the longest traffic jam in European history.” Napoleon finally caught up with the Russians on September 7, 1812 at the Battle of Borodino…two days march from Moscow. The Russians suffered 40,000 casualties in a single day, but still refused to surrender. Napoleon said, “These Russians let themselves be killed as if they were not men but mere machines.” The next morning, the French woke to find that the Russians had retreated and stolen way in the night and also taking with them all the remaining French supplies.

51 Invasion of Russia Instead the Russians retreated before Napoleon’s clumsy advance, destroying all food supplies and shelters, slaughtering animals, and poisoning wells. This is called SCORCHED-EARTH POLICY. This was done so Napoleon could not replenish his supplies and cause his troops to slowly die from malnutrition, dehydration, illness, frostbite, etc… Napoleon lost hundreds of men to illness or desertion each day. Their starving horses ate unripe grain and thatch from cottage roofs. Soon thousands of pack animals were rotting in the sun left behind by Napoleon’s withering troops.

52 Invasion of Russia The ragged remains of Napoleon’s army headed west from Moscow leaving wagons and cannons behind. Five out of every six French soldiers never made it home from the Russian invasion. In December 1812, Napoleon abandoned his remaining troops disguised as a servant and fled back to France. He left his remaining soldier to die or be captured. Between The Penisular War and the Russian Invasion, Napoleon’s massive army was now very small and weak. It left him vulnerable to defeat.

53 Russia (Logistics) In 1812, Napoleon decided to invade Russia, believing that the Russians, who were growing increasingly frustrated by the Continental System, were conspiring with the British He assembled a massive army of 600,000 soldiers, but this enormous size required supply trains that limited Napoleon’s mobility Napoleon captured Moscow, but the Russians refused to surrender – Instead, Russian patriots burned the city, leaving Napoleon without supplies or shelter

54 Russia (Logistics) Napoleon was forced to retreat – Defeated by “General Winter” – Only 30,000 soldiers made it back to France The defeat in Russia emboldened a coalition of British, Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies to converge on France An episode from the retreat from Russia, by Nicolas-Toussaint Charlet

55 Russia Napoleon moves west with army of 500 –600k in June 1812 Several battles (Smolensk, Borodino), but movement inflicts significant casualties as well – Russians leave nothing of use in wake of their retreat – Weather --rain followed by heat and then by ice and snow makes life miserable

56 The “Big Blunder” -- Russia aThe retreat from Spain came on the heels of Napoleon’s disastrous Russian Campaign ( ). aIn July, 1812 Napoleon led his Grand Armee of 614,000 men eastward across central Europe and into Russia.  The Russians avoided a direct confrontation with Napoleon.  They retreated to Moscow, drawing the French into the interior of Russia [hoping that it’s size and the weather would act as “support” for the Russian cause].  The Russian nobles abandoned their estates and burned their crops to the ground, leaving the French to operate far from their supply bases in territory stripped of food. aThe retreat from Spain came on the heels of Napoleon’s disastrous Russian Campaign ( ). aIn July, 1812 Napoleon led his Grand Armee of 614,000 men eastward across central Europe and into Russia.  The Russians avoided a direct confrontation with Napoleon.  They retreated to Moscow, drawing the French into the interior of Russia [hoping that it’s size and the weather would act as “support” for the Russian cause].  The Russian nobles abandoned their estates and burned their crops to the ground, leaving the French to operate far from their supply bases in territory stripped of food.

57 Next Political Cartoon on Napoleon and Russian Campaign In this image two Russian peasants teach Napoleon to "dance." Napoleon stands between a seated figure who plays a horn (l.), and figure who holds a whip (r.). The peasant with a whip leans menacingly toward Napoleon and instructs him by pointing to the ground and directing his feet. Napoleon in turn attempts to oblige--he raises one arm overhead and struts backward with one leg thrown out in front of him. According to Broadley, Russian caricatures of Napoleon are virtually unknown before the French invasion. Terebenev, one of the best known Russian caricaturists, took his lead from counterparts in Britain. In turn, George Cruikshank engraved several of Terebenev's designs for the British market. Broadley attributes this cross fertilization to the Tzar's realization of the efficacy caricatures had as patriotic propaganda in Britain. This image is printed on pale blue paper.

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59 In June of 1812, Napoleon began his fatal Russian campaign, a landmark in the history of the destructive potential of warfare. Virtually all of continental Europe was under his control, and the invasion of Russia was an attempt to force Czar Alexander I to submit once again to the terms of a treaty that Napoleon had imposed upon him four years earlier. Having gathered nearly half a million soldiers, from France as well as all of the vassal states of Europe, Napoleon entered Russia at the head of the largest army ever seen. The Russians, under Marshal Kutuzov, could not realistically hope to defeat him in a direct confrontation. Instead, they begin a defensive campaign of strategic retreat, devastating the land as they fell back and harassing the flanks of the French. Russian Campaign

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61 The march from the banks of Niemen to Vilna was much tougher than expected. The weather was either too hot, or too rainy. The rain would turn the poor quality roads into muddy tracks that rendered the carriages impossible to move. Horses started to die in hundreds. Several bridges on the way could not deal with the load and gave way. Each soldier carried his own four-day ration but unfortunately, these rations were all consumed during the first day due to lack of discipline. Russian Campaign (ctd.)

62 The road did not offer any source of nutrition for the starving soldiers in the march. The wells had been polluted by dead horses thrown in by the Russians. The cattle had a hard time keeping up with the army's march since the animals were not used to marching for 15 miles for 6 to 7 hours. The immense heat following the relentless rainstorms dried up the tracks but soon turned the muddy roads into clouds of dust which also hindered the army. Russian Campaign (ctd.)

63 "Until Ianovo [a town north of the Kovno-Vilna road], the heat was oppressive and the dust stifling. In the afternoon, the thunder would roll and we were drenched to the skin. On 28 June, the rains settled in and the first order of the day was to build some huts. Our exertions on this and the days following were the reason for the outbreaks of dysentery and influenza, which soon ran through the rank without let-up and thinned them more effectively than enemy shot. The rain held on through the 29 th and left us in dire straits. On the 30th, we left our swamp-camp at the crack of dawn and on the 1st of July, many more men and horses fell victim to the mud. On the 3 rd, the sun greeted us again, but the dysentery raged so badly that several hundred sick had to be brought to Maliaty, where a field hospital had been hastily established." – Lieutenant Mertens from Wuerttemberg’s account Russian Campaign (ctd.)

64 Russian Campaign Continued The trip from Vilna to Vitebsk claimed another 8000 horses, and the cattle could not keep up with the army. Several carriages were abandoned. Napoleon entered Vitebsk on July 29, The Russian army had retreated further. Napoleon’s troops were short on medical supplies and doctors. Men with lost limbs died first. Napoleon also began to show signs of mental unbalance. He began to give orders that were impossible to execute under the given conditions.

65 Battle of Borodino

66 Russian Campaign: Battle of Borodino As the Russian neared Borodino, they stopped retreating. As the French entered Gzatsk, there were no resources left for them. There was meat, but no salt. Flour, but no bread. And there was a lack of water. The temperatures hit 90 degrees. The French has lost another 15,000 men. They stayed at Gzatsk until September 4, 1812.

67 As the summer wore on, Napoleon's massive supply lines were stretched ever thinner, and his force began to decline. By September, without having engaged in a single pitched battle, the French Army had been reduced by more than two thirds from fatigue, hunger, desertion, and raids by Russian forces. The Czar insisted upon an engagement, and on September 7, with winter closing in and the French army only 70 miles (110 km) from the city, the two armies met at Borodino Field. By the end of the day, 108,000 men had died-- but neither side had gained a decisive victory. Russian Campaign (ctd.)

68 Borodino

69 Battle of Borodino: September 6, 1812 The battlefield was open farmland and 70 miles west of Moscow. The Russians had a dense forest behind them and no obstacles in front. The battle became a “trial of mutual slaughter that could have taken place anywhere.” Napoleon had 100,000 infantry, 28,000 cavalry, and 590 guns. The Russians under the command of Kutuzov had 72,000 infantry, 10,000 semi-trained militia, 17,000 cavalry, 7,000 Cossacks, and 640 guns.

70 Borodino

71 Battle of Borodino Continued Began on September 7, 1812 at 6AM. The battle ended with Kutuzov’s order to retreat at 3AM on September 8, Both sides had brutal losses. Russians lost around 44,000 men. The French lost at least 35,000 men including 3 fort-three generals. The Russians were too tired to face another attack, so Kutuzov gave the order to retreat.

72 Russian General Kutuzov The Russian army defeated the French at Borodino.

73 Battle of Borodino Reflections “We never suffered such losses. Never had the army’s moral been so damaged. I no longer found the soldier’s old gaiety. A gloomy silence had replaced songs and amusing stories that previously had helped them forget the fatigues of long marches. Even the officers appeared anxious, and they continued serving only from a sense of duty and honor. This depression, natural in a defeated army, was remarkable after a decisive action, after a victory which opened to us the gates of Moscow.” -Colonel Fezensac on the state of the French army after Borodino

74 Russian Campaign: Moscow The Russians had withdrawn to Moscow unsure what to do next. Kutuzov did not want to hand over Moscow to the French without any resistance. Kutuzov called a meeting of almost all his commanders to a Council of War. The Council was divided and realized they were outnumbered by Napoleon. So Kutuzov called for a retreat.

75 Russian Campaign: Moscow Continued Russian Commander Kutuzov wrote in 1812: “You are afraid of falling back through Moscow, but I consider it the only way of saving the army. Napoleon is a torrent, which we are unable to stem. Moscow will be the sponge that will suck him dry.”

76 Moscow

77 Kutuzov realized that any further defense of the city would be senseless, and he withdrew his forces, prompting the citizens of Moscow to begin a massive and panicked exodus. When Napoleon's army arrived on September 14, they found a city depopulated and bereft of supplies, a meager comfort in the face of the oncoming winter. To make matters worse, fires broke out in the city that night, and by the next day, the French were lacking shelter as well. After waiting in vain for Alexander to offer to negotiate, Napoleon ordered his troops to begin the march home. Russian Campaign: Moscow

78 Moscow

79 Russians torch Moscow as the French enter in Sept – City of 250k has only 25k when French arrive. Napoleon’s army is exhausted and has no means to support itself. Napoleon is anxious about being away from Paris for too long a period. After occupying the city for a month, the decision is made to return to France before winter.

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81 The Scorched-Earth Policy of the Russians

82 Russian Campaign: Moscow At the time, Moscow had a population of 250,000. It was a mixture of palaces, rich homes, cabins, bazaars, 6 cathedrals and 1500 churches. Only 25,000 people remained when Napoleon arrived. Napoleon entered Moscow on September 14, 1812.

83 Battle For Moscow

84 Napoleon’s Troops at the Gates of Moscow aSeptember 14, 1812  Napoleon reached Moscow, but the city had largely been abandoned. aThe Russians had set fire to the city. aSeptember 14, 1812  Napoleon reached Moscow, but the city had largely been abandoned. aThe Russians had set fire to the city.

85 Russian Campaign: Moscow

86 The French army was given strict orders not to pillage, but the men could not be controlled and forced themselves into the palaces and rich houses. The remaining Russians set fire to various parts of the city, and the fire spread. Napoleon barely escaped the fires which burned from September 15 through September 18.

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88 Moscow Is On Fire!

89 Results of Russian Campaign 4/5 of the city burned down Kremlin was saved by the few Russian guards that had remained Stunned Napoleon and showed that there was no hope for establishing peace with Russia Russians would not surrender. Napoleon began to retreat to Paris. As Napoleon retreated, the Russian winter came on and wiped out a large portion of his soldiers. Temperatures fell twenty-two degrees below zero. The Russian cossacks and armies also attacked the French as they crossed rivers using a pincer attack. Napoleon’s soldiers froze in the open country-side. One soldier wrote, “Our lips stuck together. Our nostrils froze. We seemed to be marching in a world of ice.” Food ran out. Horses died by the thousands. Hungry soldiers quarreled over the horseflesh. They were starving and dying from cold, fatigue, and disease. By the end of the retreat, only 10,000 to 20,000 of Napoleon’s soldiers out of a grande armee of over 500,000 had survived.

90 Because the route south was blocked by Kutuzov's forces (and the French were in no shape for a battle) the retreat retraced the long, devastated route of the invasion. Having waited until mid-October to depart, the exhausted French army soon found itself in the midst of winter--in fact, in the midst of an unusually early and especially cold winter. Temperatures soon dropped well below freezing, Cossacks attacked stragglers and isolated units, food was almost non-existent, and the march was five hundred miles. Ten thousand men survived. The campaign ensured Napoleon's downfall and Russia's status as a leading power in post-Napoleonic Europe. Russian Campaign Retreat

91 The Long Road Home Napoleon chooses to use route of advance as route of return. – Nothing left to forage. – Pursued by Russians. – Morale continues to fall. 30k unburied bodies from Battle of Bordino six weeks prior. Temps = 20 below zero. Arrives in Poland mid-December with an army less than 10% the size of the one that departed.

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94 Napoleon’s Retreat from Moscow (Early 1813)

95 Retreat from Moscow

96 Napoleon’s Retreat From Russia

97 Political Cartoon Commenting on the Effects of the Failed Russian Campaign on Napoleon’s Military Dominance and Control of Europe

98 Battle of Dresden (Aug., 26-27, 1813) eCoalition  Russians, Prussians, Austrians. eNapoléon’s forces regrouped with Polish reinforcements. e100,000 coalition casualties; 30,000 French casualties. eFrench victory. eCoalition  Russians, Prussians, Austrians. eNapoléon’s forces regrouped with Polish reinforcements. e100,000 coalition casualties; 30,000 French casualties. eFrench victory.

99 Battle of the Nations Armies from all over Europe joined forces to finally destroy Napoleon. On October 18, 1813 at the Battle of the Nations, 400,000 troops from Russia, Britain, Prussia, and Sweden defeated a French army of less than 200,000. They crossed the French border and occupied Paris. On January 25, 1814, Napoleon then began a two month campaign to try to defend his empire. Despite the return of his old military prowess, it was too late.

100 Napoleon Surrenders On April 11, 1814, nearly two weeks after Paris had fallen, Napoleon had surrendered. The next morning Napoleon drank a vial of poison he had always carried with him. He became violently ill, but did not die, because the poison had lost some of its potency over the years. The rulers of Europe allowed Napoleon to keep the title of emperor, but exiled him to Elba. Elba was a small island near Corsica, his homeland. They gave the French throne to Louis XVI’s surviving brother, Louis XVIII. Just a year earlier, Napoleon had controlled over 80 million people and now he was ruler of a tiny island with a population of less than 25,000.

101 Defeat – 5 th Coalition ( ) Russian campaign – 1812 – Lost 400,000 men – Abdicated in 1814 and sent to Elba

102 Defeat and Return For the first time Napoleon faced four great powers simultaneously The Coalition forced Napoleon to abdicate his throne in April 1814, restored the French monarchy, and exiled Napoleon to the island of Elba, near Corsica In March 1815, Napoleon escaped, returned to France, and reconstituted his army

103 Napoleon’s Defeat at Leipzig (October 16-17, 1813) “Battle of the Nations” Memorial

104 Next Political Cartoon on Battle of Leipzig Based on Johann Michael Voltz- THE TRIUMP of The Antichrist. The beast of the Apocalypse. Strictly speaking, this piece cannot be considered as a caricature but rather as a particularly violent satirical print typical of the Germans.The Antichrist. The beast of the Apocalypse The print of which several versions are listed, is associated with Franco- German explanations. The drawing alludes to the battle of Leipzig, a genuine trap set out for Napoleon: the Emperor's bust is composed of a map of Germany depicting the battles of the 1813 campaign, Lützen, Gros-Beeren, Hanau, and especially Leipzig. Napoleon is portrayed as a true death-god whose face is composed of corpses. According to the text, the eagle on top of his head which plays the part of a little hat, is the Prussian and not the imperial eagle.

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106 The 6 th Coalition  Britain, Russia. Spain, Portugal, Prussia, Austria, Sweden, smaller German states France  : Napoléon’s Defeat

107 Next Political Cartoon on Defeat of Napoleon Allies shaving shop or Boney in the suds Protesting and attempting to slide off the barber's stool, Napoleon is covered by mounds of soap suds. On his left, the Czar pinches Napoleon's nose closed and prepares to take a swipe at Napoleon's head with an absurdly large razor inscribed "Platoff's Improved." On his right, Bernadotte stands with a plate of "Swedish Lathers" and a large brush with which he applies the soap to Napoleon's face. Behind Bernadotte and to his left, a fat Dutchman has rolled up his sleeves to froth "Holland Suds" in a barrel labeled "Hollands.“ Francis I of Austria joins in carrying a dish piled high with "Austrian Suds." Meanwhile, Frederick William sits on the right of the scene and sharpens a razor inscribed "Prussian Steel," using a "Liptzic Whet stone." A placard posted on the wall over Prussia's chair announces that the shop is "Russia Prussia Austria Sweden & Co. Shavers in General To Nap Boney and His Grand Army." Significantly, none of the figures is obliquely caricatured; however, their features are slightly exaggerated to ease identification. Moreover, the engraver's skill is lacking when rendering perspectival details.

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109 Napoleon Abdicates! eAllied forces occupied Paris on March 31, eNapoléon abdicated on April 6 in favor of his son, but the Allies insisted on unconditional surrender. eNapoléon abdicated again on April 11. eTreaty of Fontainebleau  exiles Napoléon to Elba with an annual income of 2,000,000 francs. eThe royalists took control and restored Louis XVIII to the throne. eAllied forces occupied Paris on March 31, eNapoléon abdicated on April 6 in favor of his son, but the Allies insisted on unconditional surrender. eNapoléon abdicated again on April 11. eTreaty of Fontainebleau  exiles Napoléon to Elba with an annual income of 2,000,000 francs. eThe royalists took control and restored Louis XVIII to the throne.

110 Next Political Cartoon On Fall of Napoleon FROM TOP TO BOTTOM OR THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS. Napoleon's defeat.---Paris, Thiers Library Published after Napoleon's abdication on April 6, 1814, this caricature is not without reminding us of the German plate The Spanish Drink and The Russian ice-cube. Napoleon's defeat Caught between fire and water, the Emperor, having taken too wide a step with his stilts, collapses in the court of Fontainebleau castle. This is one of the first plates in which Napoleon jumps or does the splits, a theme that was to be re-used in particular to illustrate his two consecutive exiles.

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112 Elba Napoleon lived in a small villa on Elba. He had been promised enough money to rebuild the villa and to support the 1,000 soldiers he was allowed to have as an army. But Louis XVIII refused to pay a franc to Napoleon. Napoleon tried to be enthusiastic about his exile to Elba. He designed a new flag for his island country. He drew up plans to reform Elba’s economy and its government. But without the promised money from the French monarchy, he could do put any of his plans into action.

113 Exile to Elba After being forced to retreat from Russia, Napoleon fought a series of often brilliant battles in an effort to defend his crumbling empire. However, the odds grew progressively worse as more states, seeing him weakened, joined the coalition against him. By the end of March 1814 Paris was occupied and on the 11 th of April Napoleon was forced to surrender unconditionally. He was allowed to keep the title of Emperor... But his “Empire” was limited to the small island of Elba to which he was exiled.

114 As Napoleon was about to board the ship for Elba, he was surrounded by his old comrades and made this speech: “Soldiers of my Old Guard, I bid you good-bye. For twenty years I have found you uninterruptedly on the path of honour and glory. Lately no less than when things went well you have been models of courage and loyalty. With men like you our cause was not lost; but the war could not be ended: it would have been civil war, and that would only have brought France more misfortune. So I have sacrificed our interests to those of our homeland; I am leaving; you my friends, are going to go on serving France. France’s happiness was my one thought; and it will always be what I wish for most. Don’t be sorry for me; if I have chosen to go on living, I have done so in order to go on serving your glory. I want to write about the great things we have done together!....Goodbye, my children! I should like to press you all to my heart; at least I shall kiss your flag!”

115 Napoleon in Exile on Elba

116 Next Political Cartoon on Napoleon and Elba Napoleon's fishing expedition in the Isle of Elba. O! Woe! They are lost! (Variant) Broadley: Related to the Elban episode in Napoleon's career. 'The exile sits on a rock, with Rustan standing behind him holding a basket. His rod bends almost to breaking under the weight of a net containing the crown, eagles, Code Napoleon, and laurel wreaths, which he has lost.'

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119 The Hundred Days After nine months in exile, Napoleon decided to escape. On the night of February 26, 1815, he assembled a convoy of 700 men, 7 ships, 4 big guns, and 3 generals. Silently they escaped in the open sea and right under the noses of the British navy. Three days later, Napoleon landed on French soil leading an army smaller than France’s old legislature. Napoleon led his men north to Paris.

120 The Hundred Days At Grenoble, Napoleon encountered a battalion from Louis XVIII’s army. Napoleon dismounted and walked towards them. He opened his gray coat that he had worn to most of his battles and shouted: “It is I, Napoleon. Kill your emperor if you wish.” No one moved. So Napoleon then added a lie: “The 45 wisest men in the Paris government have summoned me from Elba. My return is backed by the three leading powers of Europe.” Again, no one moved. Finally, the battalion threw their hats into the air and cheered: “Long live the emperor!”

121 The Hundred Days On the first day of spring, Napoleon marched into Paris. His army had swelled to thousands as more recruits had joined him on his march and no one opposed his return. Louis XVIII fled and a cheering crowd waited at the Tuileries Palace and carried Napoleon the last few steps. But the British, Russians, Austrians, Prussians, and Spanish were not happy about Napoleon’s return. Under British command, they sent in armies on France’s eastern border. But Napoleon struck first on June 15, 1815 and defeated a Prussian army on the Belgian border.

122 “The Hundred Days” “The Hundred Days” is the name given to the period during which Napoleon escaped from Elba and returned to France, raising a new army (albeit less well-trained and battle-ready) and claiming that he would now be satisfied with a constitutional monarchy and limited borders for the French state. Why Had Napoleon embarked on the Hundred Days? : - Ambition - Concern for Family - Rumors of being exiled further afar While the French people generally greeted their charismatic ruler enthusiastically, and while the the unpopular restored Bourbon monarch – Louis XVIII – had fled, the European powers were not convinced by Napoleon’s promises Napoleon was finally defeated by a combined force of British and Prussian troops at the battle of Waterloo that began on the 18 th June 1815

123 The Hundred Days (1815) Escape from Elba King Louis XVIII fled France Ruled for short period Battle of Waterloo Sent to St. Helena 1840—Napoleon’s remains moved to Paris

124 Louis XVIII Louis XVIII was the brother of Louis XVI. He was restored to the throne by the European powers upon the defeat of Napoleon. (Louis XVI’s son having died in prison in 1795 during the French Revolution – never having been officially crowned). After being forced to flee during the Hundred Days, Louis XVIII returned again to France where he reigned as king till his death in Louis XVII Louis XVI Louis XVIII

125 “The War of the 7 th Coalition”  Britain, Russia. Prussia, Austria, Sweden, smaller German states France  1815: Napoleon’s “100 Days” eNapoléon escaped Elba and landed in France on March 1, 1815  the beginning of his 100 Days. eMarie Louise & his son were in the hands of the Austrians. eNapoléon escaped Elba and landed in France on March 1, 1815  the beginning of his 100 Days. eMarie Louise & his son were in the hands of the Austrians.

126 Battle of Waterloo The Duke of Wellington, commander of the coalition army, heard the news while attending a ball in Brussels. He said: “Napoleon has humbugged me.” The Duke of Wellington immediately called his aides and disappeared into a side room at the ball with a map of southern Belgium and began to plan his counter-attack. Wellington moved into position near the town of Waterloo on June 17, A cold drizzle fell on the battlefield that day. The battle began at noon and ended the next day at nightfall with the French in frenzied retreat.

127 Battle of Waterloo Napoleon had several chances to deal the Duke of Wellington a crushing blow at the battle, but he hesitated each time till it was too late to make the move. Another advantage that the coalition troops had was that 50,000 Prussian soldiers had joined them on the last day of battle and reinforced the tired British. By the time the battle ended, about 50,000 men lay dead on the battlefield.

128 Napoleon’s Defeat at Waterloo (June 18, 1815) Duke of Wellington Prussian General Blücher

129 The Battle of Waterloo The Battle of Waterloo was fought 13 kilometres south of Brussels between the French and Belgian border The soldiers were under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte and Allied armies by the Duke of Wellington from Britain and General Blücher from Prussia.

130 The Battle of Waterloo Cont. After his return to France, Napoleon developed his strategy to defeat the Allies He re-established himself in Paris and began building up his army in preparation for an invasion of Belgium His goal was to capture Brussels His battle plan was to mount an offensive attack on the Allied troops gathering in Belgium and to destroy them

131 Waterloo

132 Waterloo (Reverse Slope) On June 18, 1815 Napoleon had 72,000 men and 246 guns facing Wellington’s force of 68,000 men and 156 guns at Mount St. Jean, just south of Waterloo Wellington positioned many of his soldiers on the reverse slope of Mount St. Jean were they were partially hidden and received some protection from Napoleon’s artillery

133 Waterloo (Reverse Slope) The fighting went back and forth until Napoleon finally committed his last reserve– nine battalions of the Old Guard British infantrymen halted the Old Guard’s attack and it broke and ran British and Prussians pursued the retreating French and Wellington gained a decisive victory

134 Battle of Waterloo Continued Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo marked the end of the Emperor's final bid for power The battle was closely fought and either side could have won, but mistakes in communication, leadership and judgment led, ultimately, to French defeat He was exiled to the island of St Helena where he died in 1821 Wellington fought his last battle at Waterloo and became a hero, throughout Europe.

135 Waterloo Napoleon returned to Paris fully intending to continue the struggle but the national legislature refused to support him Napoleon had no choice but to abdicate the throne This time the Allies banished him to the remote island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic He died in 1821 Napoleon was originally interred in St. Helena but in 1840 his remains were moved to Paris and are now in Les Invalides where many French military heroes are buried

136 Napoleon on His Way to His Final Exile on St. Helena

137 Exile to St. Helena After Waterloo, the kings of Europe did not want to take anymore chances of Napoleon returning to Europe and causing more trouble. They exiled him to the tiny volcanic island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic. It was more than 700 miles from the closest land. A squadron of warships, a garrison of 2, 250 men, and 500 cannons kept watch over the shoreline to make sure Napoleon did not escape. Napoleon spent six cold, damp, lonely years on St. Helena. He had been allowed a dozen servants and a dozen aides to be with him.

138 Exiled to St. Helena His first wife Josephine was dead. His second wife Marie-Louise and their young son were under house arrest in the Schoenbrunn Palace in Vienna. Napoleon’s health was poor and immediately worsened. He had difficulty going to the bathroom and suffered from terrible pains. Convinced he was being poisoned by British agents, he stopped eating. He died on May 5, 1821 calling out for Josephine.

139 St. Helena in Perspective The choice of St. Helena was no coincidence. Unlike Elba, this island was not to be as pleasant a location. In the middle of the South Atlantic, thousands of kilometers from any major land-mass, escape was now virtually impossible. It was here that Napoleon was to die in 1821

140 The Fall of an Emperor Among the small entourage that accompanied the deposed Emperor into exile was the Comte de Las Cases who kept a diary of his experience: "August 10 This day we cleared the Channel. We had now entered upon the dreary unknown course to which fate had doomed us. Again my agonies were renewed; again the dear connections I had abandoned resumed their sway over my heart. Meanwhile we advanced in our course and were soon to be out of Europe. Thus, in less than six weeks, had the emperor abdicated his throne and placed himself in the hands of the English, who were now hurrying him to a barren rock in the midst of a vast ocean. This is certainly no ordinary instance of the chances of fortune, and no common trial of firmness of mind.

141 October The Emperor Napoleon, who lately possessed such boundless power and disposed of so many crowns, now occupies a wretched hovel, a few feet square, which is perched upon a rock, unprovided with furniture, and without either shutters or curtains to the windows. This place must serve him for bedchamber, dressing room, dining room, study, and sitting room; and he is obliged to go out when it is necessary to have this one apartment cleaned. His meals, consisting of a few wretched dishes, are brought to him from a distance, as though he were a criminal in a dungeon. He is absolutely in want of the necessaries of life: the bread and wine are not only not such as he has been accustomed to, but are so bad that we loathe to touch them; water, coffee, butter, oil, and other articles are either not to be procured or are scarcely fit for use.

142 ' We were all assembled around the emperor, and he was recapitulating these facts with warmth: 'For what infamous treatment are we reserved!' he exclaimed. This is the anguish of death. To injustice and violence they now add insult and protracted torment. If I were so hateful to them, why did they not get rid of me? A few musket balls in my heart or my head would have done the business, and there would at least have been some energy in the crime. Were it not for you, and above all for your wives, I would receive nothing from them but the pay of a private soldier. How can the monarchs of Europe permit the sacred character of sovereignty to be violated in my person? Do they not see that they are, with their own hands, working their own destruction at St. Helena?

143 'I entered their capitals victorious and, had I cherished such sentiments, what would have become of them? They styled me their brother, and I had become so by the choice of the people, the sanction of victory, the character of religion, and the alliances of their policy and their blood. Do they imagine that the good sense of nations is blind to their conduct? And what do they expect from it? At all events, make your complaints, gentlemen; let indignant Europe hear them. Complaints from me would be beneath my dignity and character; I must either command or be silent.'" References: The account of the Comte de Las Cases appears in Robinson, James Harvey, Readings in European History (1906); Hamilton-Williams, David, The Fall of Napoleon: the Final Betrayal (1994).

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146 Napoleon’s Residence on St. Helena

147 Napoleon’s Death Some think Napoleon died of cancer. Others think he died from toxic fumes from the wallpaper in the house he spent the last 6 years of his life. (Arsenic)

148 Researchers from the San Francisco Medical Examiner's Department outline their theory for the French Emperor's demise in New Scientist magazine. They say doctors killed Napoleon through over-zealous treatment. Napoleon died aged 52 in 1821, on the island of St Helena in the south Atlantic where he had been banished after his defeat at Waterloo. It's not as sexy as the idea that he was murdered. Most historians accept the official explanation that Napoleon died from stomach cancer. This was the verdict of an autopsy carried out after his death by his personal physician Francesco Antommarchi and witnessed by five other doctors. Stomach cancer had also killed Napoleon's father. But doubts were raised in 2001 when French forensic specialists said tests on Napoleon's hair suggested a "major exposure to arsenic". It was suggested that the British governor of St Helena, Hudson Lowe, conspired with French count Charles de Montholon to assassinate Napoleon This new theory from the US scientists says arsenic clears the two suspects. It says exposure to the poison from coal smoke and other environmental sources could have been a factor in Napoleon's death. But they say it is more likely that it was the treatments given to Napoleon in an attempt to cure him that actually killed him. He was given regular doses of antimony potassium tartrate, or tartar emetic a poisonous colourless salt which was used to make him vomit. He was also given regular enemas.

149 The researchers, led by forensic pathologist Steven Karch, say this would have caused a serious potassium deficiency, which can lead to a potentially fatal heart condition called Torsades de Pointes in which rapid heartbeats disrupt blood flow to the brain. They say the final straw is likely to have been a 600 milligram dose of mercuric chloride, given as a purge to clear the intestines two days before his death. This was five times the normal dose, and would have depleted his potassium levels still further, they say. Dr Karch told BBC News Online he came to his conclusions after looking at modern cases where treatments had led patients to develop a potassium deficiency, and then Torsades de Pointes. He said: "There is a very strong argument for this - but it's not as sexy as the idea that he was murdered. "The arsenic wasn't killing him - his doctors did him in!" However Phil Corso, a retired Connecticut doctor, who advocates the cancer theory, told New Scientist: "It's really far-fetched when you think about it. He said Napoleon had clearly been sick for some time and would have died from his tumour, regardless of the treatment meted out to him by doctors.

150 Was Napoleon poisoned or did he die of stomach cancer? Antommarchi's autopsy report is very complete and shows Napoleon's general state of health at his death, notably a chronic stomach ulcer and pulmonary lesions linked to tuberculosis. Cancer cannot be diagnosed because of a lack of histological evidence from the stomach lining. At any rate, one does not die 'of cancer', one dies of the effects of the cancer on the organism. Analysis of the emperor's hair and the discovery of high level of arsenic therein poses several questions. But it is intellectually impossible to accept the theory of death by arsenic poisoning. First of all, we can never be 100% certain that the hairs analysed come from Napoleon. Furthermore, the level of arsenic could be interpreted in different ways, notably the methods of analysis and the ways of calculating the levels used by the toxicologists (numbers obtained weighed against the number of hairs analysed: in fact, very few hairs have been analysed. Whilst presence of arsenic cannot be explained arguing from its external use (in cosmetics, for example), we still do not know where the arsenic came from, and it could have come from many sources. The hairs on the head of the people in Napoleon's entourage could also have a high arsenic content. Finally, to pass from toxicological results to a poisoning theory, then to a voluntary criminal act is very difficult. Indeed, one cannot establish a theory, accepting certain elements of the correspondence of one of the protagonists whilst eliminating other elements two paragraphs further on which contradict this position. The only certainties thus are, Napoleon's general state of health was very poor and no direct cause of death can be determined accurately. This is the only satisfactory conclusion from an ontological point of view, both for the scientist and for the historian. A deeply held conviction may be the starting point of an investigation but certainly not its conclusion.

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152 St. Helena... THE END! The German cartoon on the right ridicules the defeated Napoleon, showing him commanding an army of mice during his exile in St. Helena

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156 Legacy of Napoleon Historians believe Napoleon achieved only two of the three goals of the French Revolution: Equality and Fraternity at the great expense of Liberty. Reforms like the Napoleonic Code made France a fairer place. But his secret police put enemies in jail. He censored the press. And many of his accomplishments were temporary, because as soon as he was gone, Napoleon’s family members were overthrown. Napoleon was one of the greatest military minds of his time, but due to his wars, six million people died. Tens of millions lost their homes or their children.


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