The Domestic System In 1750, most people lived and worked in the countryside. They worked as producers of woollen cloth. They cleaned, combed, spun, dyed and wove the raw material into cloth. They did this work in their own houses on a small scale combined with farming. The raw wool was delivered to the cottages. The finished product was collected from the cottages. This type of production has become known as Domestic (or Cottage) Industry.
Businessmen They were known as clothiers or cloth merchants. They organised production. So, their job was to: bring the raw material to the cottage and take away the finished cloth to sell at the cloth hall.
In the cottages Entire families worked in their cottages producing cloth with only simple tools and machines. Everyone who could see and who had nimble fingers played a part. Work was usually divided up between the members of one family: Women usually did the spinning. Men did the weaving.
Jobs at home: Spinners http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=95658&rendTypeId=4
Jobs at home Spinners were women and girls. were responsible for: cleaning the sheep fleeces, carding the wool and spinning it. were also known as spinsters (=unmarried women) because the job was frequently done by young girls. used the spinning wheel to do the spinning. Their finished product was called yarn.
Jobs at home: Weavers http://eiu.edu/~cfnek/gifsplus/moll/prentices.jpg
Jobs at home Weavers were men. weaved the woollen thread into cloth. used a handloom. The weaving was hard manual work and usually left to the men folk. About seven or eight spinners were needed for one weaver.
Machines at home The spinning wheel: was often to be found on a ground floor with large windows. was worked by hand movements. was in the same room where food was cooked.
Machines at home The handloom http://nzphoto.tripod.com/avillagelife/weave/weaver_images/loom.jpg
Machines at home The handloom: was often to be found on an upper floor with large windows. was worked by both hand and foot movements.
Advantages of the domestic system Workers could still look after their children. They did not have to travel any distance to work. They could also perhaps grow food or keep livestock on a small holding. They could work at their own speed and rested when they needed to. Windows allowed for light and ventilation.
Disadvantages of the domestic system People had to work very long hours to make a living often in small, cramped spaces. The production was very slow. The finished product was not enough.
Bibliography Photos taken from internet: http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=95658&rendTypeId=4 http://eiu.edu/~cfnek/gifsplus/moll/prentices.jpg http://library.thinkquest.org/C005121/data/britain2_files/image008.jpg http://nzphoto.tripod.com/avillagelife/weave/weaver_images/loom.jpg http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Texclothier.jpg Photos taken by Maria del Roser Pujadas Jubany City Chambers, Glasgow: slide 9 Spinning wheel, Kelvingrove Museum, Glasgow: slide 12 Text adapted from: http://www.cottontown.org./page.cfm?pageid=338 http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~todmordenandwalsden/cottageindustry.htm http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/domestic_system.html http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/008.html SMITH, Nigel: The Industrial Revolution, Serie Events and Outcomes, Evans, 2002, page 10. Maria del Roser Pujadas Jubany Llicència C 2006-2007