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Unit 1 - Changes during the Industrial Revolution in Britain

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1 Unit 1 - Changes during the Industrial Revolution in Britain
Textbook page Powerpoint presentation created by: Mr L Taute

2 Unit 1 - Changes during the Industrial Revolution in Britain
Key terms Triangular trade route Route between three different countries / places. Industrial Revolution Started during 1750 in England, and means that fewer goods are made ​​by hand, but rather by machines in large factories. Child labour Work performed by children under the age of 16 years, which could lead to abuse, dangerous and inappropriate situations for a child. Mass Production The production of large quantities of one type of product. Enclosure system To demarcate (to set or draw a boundary) separate pieces land. Cottage industry Products are hand made ​​at home by families. Other important key terms that is spoken of in this unit: Empire , Luddites, Open field system, Swing Riots

3 Unit 1 - Changes during the Industrial Revolution in Britain
Key terms serfdom The relationship peasant farmers had with landowners in which they could live on the land but had to pay the landowners with crops and labour. subsistence Producing just enough for one’s own use. merchant A sales man. Lodging houses A house with many rooms where people could rent a room for one or more nights. mechanisation When machines do the jobs that people used to do, making people unnecessary in factories. slum Very dirty, unhygienic and overcrowded living conditions. typhus A bacterial disease. scalper The hair and skin removed from the head. draughty Filled with draughts (cold air). prevalent Happened often. House of Commons British Parliament.

4 Unit 1 - Changes during the Industrial Revolution in Britain
Key terms redundant When a worker is no longer needed because of being replaced by a machine. predicament Situation. vigilante Acting like law enforcers. Six Acts Harsh laws at that time to prevent the Luddites from destroying mechanical looms. Trade union A group of workers who generally work in the same industry and come together to further a common goal to improve their working conditions. coalition Collection of people. satellites Countries that are dependant on or under the influence of other more powerful countries.

5 1. Wealth from salve trade
The triangular trade union between Europe, Africa and the Americas was at its height in the 18th century. This contributed enormously to the economic growth of Europe and the Americas. The British Empire especially benefited economically from this: Played the biggest part in the slave trade and transported about 3 million Africans to slavery. Textbook page 44

6 1. Wealth from salve trade(continues)
British economy had benefited with the following in this trade: Ports and cities became rich. (Bristol and London were the most important slave-trading cities. Later Liverpool became the largest slave-trading port in the Atlantic system.) In middle of 18th century (1700’s) there were ± 175 slave ships in Liverpool. Main income came from taxes on imports and exports of ships through the ports. Textbook page 44

7 1. Wealth from salve trade(continues)
British economy had benefited with the following in this trade: (continues): Britain exported textiles, manufactured goods and other commodities to Africa. Guns were also in great demand in Africa. Lloyds & Barclays (some of the earliest banks in Britain) gained their wealth from the slave trade. Some indviduals became rich and were influential in politics. Textbook page 44

8 2. Economy before the Industrial Revolution
Before Industrial Revolution = Large part of the country’s population lived in the countryside. These people were completely isolated and formed small communities. The grey grain or raised sheep for wool, both of which required manual labour. Farming tools were common but machines were not. Textbook page 45 Good summers = Good crops Long winters = Hunger and discomfort

9 2. Economy before the Industrial Revolution (continues)
2.1 Farming economy Although serfdom in England had disappeared by the end of the 17th century, most farms were established on “common land”. Peasant farmers leased the land. This common land was based on the open-field system. Textbook page 45

10 2. Economy before the Industrial Revolution (continues) 2. 1
2. Economy before the Industrial Revolution (continues) 2.1 Farming economy (continues) Land on the open field system was divided into long narrow strips – each household received a strip. This meant that crops could not be cultivated on a large scale and agricultural production never increased much above subsistence level, which kept the peasants poor. Early 1700’s agriculture increased dramatically and resulted in an agricultural surplus. These included: Inventions New farming methods Enclosure system Textbook page 45

11 (English agricultural surplus)
2. Economy before the Industrial Revolution (continues) 2.1 Farming economy (continues) 1. Inventions: Jethro Tull (English agricultural surplus) The Seed drill Textbook page 45

12 (English agricultural surplus)
2. Economy before the Industrial Revolution (continues) 2.1 Farming economy (continues) 1. Inventions: Jethro Tull (English agricultural surplus) Horse hoe Textbook page 45

13 Four-course rotation of crops.
2. Economy before the Industrial Revolution (continues) 2.1 Farming economy (continues) 2. Inventions : Lord Townshend (English nobleman) Four-course rotation of crops. = Helped keep the ground good for farming almost all year. Hanboek bladsy 45

14 (English agriculturalist) Improved livestock breeding = Increased
2. Economy before the Industrial Revolution (continues) 2.1 Farming economy (continues) 3. Inventions: Robert Bakewell (English agriculturalist) Improved livestock breeding = Increased Animal production Textbook page 45

15 3. Inventions: Enclosure system
2. Economy before the Industrial Revolution (continues) 2.1 Farming economy (continues) 3. Inventions: Enclosure system The common open fields on which peasants grew their crops were fenced off and full control was returned to the landowners. This started in die 1750’s. Landowners = increased agriculture production & to specialise in growing specific crops. Peasant farmers were dispossessed of their land. Britain could now produce surplus food, which would be necessary to feed a population that would double in the 18th century. Textbook page

16 2. Economy before the Industrial Revolution (continues)
2.2 Cottage industries Other part of Britain’s pre-I.R. was based on its cottage industry. A popular form of economic activity in the 17th-early 18th centuries (1600’s-1700’s). Famers & their families were engaged in: Sewing Lace-making Household manufacturing. By the early 18th century cottage industries became more specialised. Textbook page 46

17 2. Economy before the Industrial Revolution (continues) 2. 2
2. Economy before the Industrial Revolution (continues) 2.2 Cottage industries (continues) Although cottage industries largely collapsed with the start of the I.R. they contributed to it in some important ways: Profitable for the urban merchants. Boosting the English economy through the increase of trade. Britain became well-known overseas for its high-quality and low-cost exports. Urban merchants gained experience in the import of raw materials and the export of manufactured products. Many people who worked in the cottage industries developed skills that were needed in the textile factories of the I.R. Textbook page 46

18 Textbook page 47

19 3. What was the Industrial Revolution?
Was a change that began in Britain. Movement of people: Working on land to Working in manufacturing. Urbanization occurred! New methods of manufacturing = produced more cheaply and quicker. New inventions, ideas and methods were created for example the use of iron & coal lead to the invention of the steam engine. Textbook page 47

20 4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution
During 1800’s (17th century) it had spread through Britain. Plenty of factories were established, people moved from countryside to the towns for better paid jobs. Textbook Page 48

21 4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution(continues)
4.1 Urbanisation and changing living conditions 1000’s of workers were needed to operate the machines in mills and foundries. Cities filled to overflowing with people. London (and other British cities) was not prepared for this great increase in people If their were no houses available people stayed in lodging houses, with whole families living in single rooms. Textbook Page 48

22 4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution(continues)
4.1 Urbanisation and changing living conditions (continues) The working class Mass production and mechanisation resulted in unemployment, while some workers found job opportunities operating the new machines. Workers lived & worked under harsh conditions in the growing industrial cities. The close relationships that existed among the family members during the cottage industry became impossible in the large factory system. Textbook Page 48

23 Working day in factory = 12-14 hours, 6 days a week.
4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution(continues) 4.1 Urbanisation and changing living conditions (continues) The working class (continues) Working day in factory = hours, 6 days a week. (same as in the cottage industry) BUT employees wanted to keep the machines running for as long as possible, so employees were forced to work faster and without rest. Jobs became more specialised, and the work boring. Women & children who also worked as unskilled labourers earned even lower wages. Child labour was very bad, with children as young as 9years working in factories and mines. Textbook Page 48.

24 4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution(continues)
4.1 Urbanisation and changing living conditions (continues) Overcrowded housing Workers lived near factories so that they can walk to work. Houses were built quickly and cheaply. Most of them 2-4 floors with 1or2 rooms downstairs and 1or2 rooms on upper levels. Victorian families were big with 4or5 children. No running water and no indoor toilet. (whole street would have to share an outdoor pump and a couple of outside toilets). Textbook Page 49

25 4.1.2 Overcrowded housing (continues)
4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution(continues) 4.1 Urbanisation and changing living conditions (continues) Overcrowded housing (continues) Most houses in North England were Build “back to back” with no windows at the front No backyards A sewer down middle of the street. Built crammed close together, narrow streets between them. Houses crowded with 5+ people. Towns were dirty & unhealthy. Rubbish was thrown into the streets. Slum conditions provided breeding grounds for diseases. More than people died in 1832 during an outbreak of cholera, and lots more were killed by typhus, smallpox and dysentery. Textbook Page 49

26 4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution(continues)
4.1 Urbanisation and changing living conditions (continues) Poverty Poverty developed in most towns and cities: Not enough work for all people who flocked towards the cities. Because there was an oversupply of labour, factory owners were able to pay low wages that people could not survive on. Increasing mechanism created unemployment. Many families therefore sent their children out to work! Children of 7 & 8 years could work from 04:00-19:00 as bird scarers out in the fields. Older ones worked as casual labourers. Textbook Page 49

27 4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution(continues)
4.1 Urbanisation and changing living conditions (continues) Poverty (continues) Groups of dirty, ragged children roamed the streets of cities : No regular money & no home to go. Street children were often orphans. They stole or picked pockets to buy food. Slept in outhouses or doorways. Some did jobs to earn money. They could work as crossing-sweepers, sweeping a way through the mud & horse dung of main paths to make way for the ladies and gentlemen. Other sold lace, flowers, matched or muffins, etc. out in the streets. Textbook page 49. Charles Dickens wrote about these children in his book “Oliver Twist”.

28 4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution(continues)
4.1 Urbanisation and changing living conditions (continues) Workhouses A Building made to house the poor. Built all over the country as a result of the 1834 New Poor Laws' introduction. This act of Parliament said that people who were very poor, old, sick or unemployed should be looked after in these houses. Textbook Page 50 These workhouses provide food, drink and work for its inmates. People who went to live here were expected take all their belongings with them when moving in, and to stay there until they died.

29 Textbook Page 50.

30 4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution(continues)
4.2 The mines and factories Mines + Factories offered work to many people. Not always safe to work there. Many people and children were injured or killed in these mines and factories. Factory system features: Strict discipline Harsh punishment Unhealthy working conditions Low wages Inflexible work hours Factories stripped workers from: * Freedom * Dignity *Creativity Textbook Page 51

31 4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution(continues) 4. 2
4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution(continues) 4.2 The mines and factories (continues) Child labour = children at young age used as cheap labour, for little/no wages. Great demand for child labour because: Children cheap source of labour. Ideal factory workers: obedient & submissive. (Would have got punishment and unlikely to form unions) Suited for new machines and work situations: nimble fingers, small stature and suppleness. Advantage with small machines and built low to ground as well as in the narrow underground tunnels of coal and iron mines. Textbook Page 51

32 4.2.2 Child labour in mills 1000’s worked in cotton mills.
4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution(continues) 4.2 The mines and factories (continues) Child labour in mills 1000’s worked in cotton mills. Mill owners often took in orphans and gave them a place to live BUT worked them as hard as possible without wages! Most of childrens’ time was spent at machines with few/no rest for fresh air/exercise. They even worked on Sundays to clean the machines! Textbook Page 51-52 Their were some serious accidents. Children were scalped when their hair was caught in the machines, hands were crushed and some children were killed when they went to sleep and fell into the machines.

33 4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution(continues) 4. 2
4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution(continues) 4.2 The mines and factories (continues) Child labour in mines Coal mines were dangerous places where roofs sometimes caved in, explosions happened and workers got all sorts of injuries (due to few safety rules). Cutting + moving of coal = by men, women and children. Children worked as: trappers (description p.52) Coal bearers (carry loads of coal on their backs in big baskets) Textbook Page 52 “Vangers” = Kinders het in gat gesit wat vir hulle uitgehol is en ‘n tou vasgehou wat aan die deur vasgebind was. Wanneer hulle die steenkoolwaens hoor aankom het, moes hulle die deur oopmaak deur ‘n tou te trek. Dié werk was een van die maklikste in die myn, maar dit was eensaam, klam en trekkerig (kou lug).

34 4.2.3 Child labour in mines (continues)
4. Social changes during the Industrial Revolution(continues) 4.2 The mines and factories (continues) Child labour in mines (continues) The Mines Act passed by the Government in 1842 forbidding the employment of women and girls and all boys under the age of 10 down in the mines. Later it became illegal for a boy under the age of 12 to work down a mine. Textbook Page 52. AFTER SLIDE DO INTERACTIVE TEST ON E-BOOK ON PAGE 48!!!

35 5. Resistance to working conditions (militant actions and the organisation of trade unions)
5.1 Swing riots and Luddites The Swing-Riots was a widespread uprising by agriculture workers who started in Aug (See “Captain Swing” on page.53) The Luddites were bands of English workers who destroyed machinery (especially in cotton and wood mills), what they believed was a threat to their jobs. Their activities started in 1811. Textbook page 53

36 5.1.1 Swing riots - Agriculture
5. Resistance to working conditions (continues) 5.1 Swing riots and Luddites (continues) Swing riots - Agriculture Because fencing system peasants became poor and lost ground on which they farmed. Some peasant farmers worked for the landowners and received very low wages. Land owners had to start laying off many workers and began to use threshing machines. Textbook page 54

37 5.1.1 Swing riots - Agriculture (continues)
5. Resistance to working conditions (continues) 5.1 Swing riots and Luddites (continues) Swing riots - Agriculture (continues) On 28 Aug 1830 the Swing Riots began when they destroyed the 1st threshing machine. By the 3rd week of Aug 100’s of threshing machines were destroyed. After this landowners decided to increase wages and to hire more peasant farmers, but many did not keep their promise. Britain's political reforms needed farm workers to be represented in parliament. Textbook page 54

38 5.1.1 Swing riots - Agriculture (continues)
5. Resistance to working conditions (continues) 5.1 Swing riots and Luddites (continues) Swing riots - Agriculture (continues) On 15 November 1830 Wellington’s government was defeated in a vote in the House of Commons. 2 days later a new more liberal government was formed: A Whig-government (The Wigs were a liberal party in Brittain, while the Tories were conservatives.) The Swing-riots added to the strong social, political and agricultural unrest throughout Britain in the 1830’s. The Reform Act was introduced in 1832, which gave peasant farmers some representation in the House of Commons. The Whig government also introduced a chain of workhouses across the country. Textbook page 54

39 5.1.2 Luddites - industry The Luddites protest was different!
5. Resistance to working conditions (continues) 5.1 Swing riots and Luddites (continues) Luddites - industry The Luddites protest was different! Croppers were men (cloth work) and were highly skilled. They were made redundant because of the new machines frames in the mills. Croppers were annoyed at their rapid loss of status and relative wealth. They then became Luddite protestors. They intended on wrecking the frames responsible for their predicament. Textbook page 55

40 5.1.2 Luddites - industry (continues)
5. Resistance to working conditions (continues) 5.1 Swing riots and Luddites (continues) Luddites - industry (continues) The disruption caues by the Luddites was so bad that the Prime Minister, Stanley Perceval, introduced the Frame Breaking Act. This act of parliament outlawed the vigilante tactics of the Luddites and imposed the death penalty on any man found guilty of smashing a frame. The government went on to pass further legislation, known now as the Six Acts, to suppress the Luddite actions. The Luddites only began to stop their actions after 3 Luddites were hanged when they ambushed and killed a mill owner in 1813. Hanboek bladsy 55

41 5.1.2 Luddites - industry (continues)
5. Resistance to working conditions (continues) 5.1 Swing riots and Luddites (continues) Luddites - industry (continues) In 1816 there was a revival of violence and machine breaking following a bad harvest and a downturn in trade. In June 1816 the Luddites attacked a mill in Loughborough, smashing 53 frames. They were arrested and 6 men were executed and another three were imprisoned. After the trials, Luddism subsided. Textbook page 55. AFTER SLIDE DO INTERACTIVE TEST ON PAGE 53!!!

42 Textbook page 55-56

43 5. Resistance to working conditions (continues)
5.2 Grand National Consolidated Trades Union From about 1800 work began to move from mainly agricultural to industrial production. Low wages, poor working conditions and rising food prices led to workers coming together in an early form of trade union. The response from successive governments was to restrict combination by making it illegal. The French Revolution (1789) which ended the monarchy, helped to develop and spread more radical ideas. Textbook page 56

44 5. Resistance to working conditions (continues)
5.2 Grand National Consolidated Trades Union (continues) In 1834 Robert Owen, a social reformer, founded the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union (GNCTU). This was a broad-based coalition of working people aimed at protecting their rights. It had members drawn from a number of trades including: Miners Tailors Bakers Gas workers Textbook page 57

45 5. Resistance to working conditions (continues)
5.2 Grand National Consolidated Trades Union (continues) In 1834 the government attempted to smash the union by arresting 6 agriculture labourers from the village Tolpuddle in Dorset. These 6 men having joined the GNCTU, were accused and found guilty. They were sentenced to transportation to Australia (a British penal colony) for 7 years. Textbook page

46 5. Resistance to working conditions (continues)
5.2 Grand National Consolidated Trades Union (continues) The GNCTU lasted only 1 year! There were too many disagreements about how to organise the union, and after the Tolpuddle case, workers were afraid to join. Nonetheless, the idea of a united workers’ union had been planted and gave rise to the establishment of the National Association of United Trades for the Protection of Labour in 1845.

47 6. Increased power and wealth of Britain and Western European economies
The Industrial Revolution had a huge increase in the production of many kinds of goods created. 6.1 Increased power and wealth of Britain Britain took the lead. Banks were founded to handle the increased flow of money. In 1750, London had 20 banks and by 1800 the city had 70. Banks = loans to factory owner to buy machines. = short-term loans to industrialists. = credit to farmers, wholesalers, etc..

48 6. Increased power and wealth of Britain and Western European economies (continues)
6.2 Increased power and wealth of Western European economies The Industrial Revolution gave West Europe the economic system and technology to dominate a large part of the world during the colonial period at the end of the 19th century. The countries that did NOT change towards an Industrial system, were quickly left behind, and often ended up as satellites to the major powers.

49 Unit 1 : Changes during the Industrial Revolution in Britain
Textbook page End of Topic 2 Unit 1 Next: Topic 2 Unit 2 & 3 Powerpoint presentation created by: Mr L Taute


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