Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen. Chapter Intro 1 South Asian countries are working to increase trade, industrialization, and technology, but ongoing political and religious."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Intro 1 South Asian countries are working to increase trade, industrialization, and technology, but ongoing political and religious conflicts threaten the region’s stability and economic development. Increased industrialization and growing populations contribute to environmental problems.
Chapter Intro 2 Section 1: The Economy Patterns of economic interdependence vary among the world’s countries. Economic growth has occurred in different ways and at different rates in the countries of South Asia, but increased trade has helped the region’s countries become more economically interdependent.
Chapter Intro 3 Section 2: People and Their Environment Changes occur in the use, distribution, and importance of natural resources. South Asia’s countries are seeking ways to manage natural resources, which are in danger of becoming depleted because of exploding population growth, high population densities, and a growing middle class.
Section 1-GTR The Economy Economic growth has occurred in different ways and at different rates in the countries of South Asia, but increased trade has helped the region’s countries become more economically interdependent.
Section 1-GTR A.Chittagong The Economy B.Bengaluru (Bangalore) C.Hyderabad
Section 1 Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in South Asia, but a variety of other activities contribute to the region’s economic growth. Economic Activities Most people practice subsistence farming. South Asia: Agriculture Supply
Section 1 Agricultural conditions: –Terracing –Fruit orchards –Rice paddies –Small farms versus plantations Economic Activities (cont.) South Asian crops: –Sri Lanka—tea, rubber, coconuts –India—tobacco, bananas, coffee, tea, cotton
Section 1 Economic Activities (cont.) –Bangladesh—jute The green revolution: –Pros—increased food production, hunger alleviated –Cons—chemicals pollute water. Mining and fishing are profitable industries with the potential for growth in the years to come. –India is second only to China in rice production.
Section 1 Economic Activities (cont.) Industrialization has proceeded along different lines in South Asia: –India’s government opened its economy to direct foreign investment in the 1990s. –Light industry—South Asia’s involvement grows out of its history of cottage industries. –Heavy industries—South Asia’s industrial base is geared toward mass production.
Section 1 Economic Activities (cont.) –Service industries—these have become increasingly important since the 1980s. –High technology—a growing industry in South Asia South Asia: Economic Activities
Section 1 Economic Activities (cont.) Tourism: –Hiking and climbing the Himalayan Mountains –Hunting or photographing wild animals –Touring India’s temples and festivals –Ecotourism
Section 1 Transportation and communications vary greatly throughout South Asia, and improvements will contribute to economic growth. Transportation and communications Land travel: –Nepal has the least-developed modern transportation network, but new roads are being constructed. –India has the most-developed network, with more than 20,000 miles of highway.
Section 1 Transportation and communications (cont.) Water travel: –Countries in South Asia have many seaports linking major ocean trade routes. Communications: –India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan—the most lively and outspoken newspapers –Bhutan and Nepal—censored media India: Road Systems
Section 1 Countries in South Asia are trying to become more interdependent, but long- standing political disputes are obstacles to trade and economic interdependence in the region. Trade and Interdependence A rivalry between India and Pakistan has affected economic ties among the region’s countries. The South Asia Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) went into effect in India has free trade agreements with other countries, excluding Pakistan.
Section 2-GTR People and Their Environment South Asia’s countries are seeking ways to manage natural resources, which are in danger of becoming depleted because of exploding population growth, high population densities, and a growing middle class.
Section 2-GTR A.Narmada River People and Their Environment B.Bay of Bengal
Section 2 South Asia’s countries are attempting to manage their natural resources in ways that do not deplete them or cause further damage to ecosystems. Human Impact on Resources Water—lack of access to this resource is a persistent problem in South Asia. Building dams is one way to balance the extremes of droughts and flooding.
Section 2 Human Impact on Resources (cont.) Pros: –Dams reroute water for irrigation. –They control flooding. Cons: –Dams trap silt that would enrich the soil downriver. –They can be hosts to insects (results in malaria). –They can result in flooding of the surrounding areas.
Section 2 Human Impact on Resources (cont.) Forests—deforestation has accelerated in recent years. Reasons for deforestation: –Commercial timber operations –Clearing for human settlements –Mining industry –Slash-and-burn agriculture –Burning biomass
Section 2 Human Impact on Resources (cont.) Wildlife—deforestation, irrigation, and contact with the growing human population have hurt the surrounding wildlife. Scientists are trying to find solutions to the following problems: –Pollution –Monsoons –Erosion South Asia: Shrinking Habitats
Section 2 Continuing conflicts impact the environment and people of South Asia. Future Challenges Since 1947, India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the largely Muslim territory of Kashmir. Both countries tested nuclear warheads in Countries with Nuclear Weapons Capability
Section 2 Future Challenges (cont.) Internal conflicts: –Sri Lanka—Buddhist Sinhalese versus Hindu Tamils –Nepal—rebels have been trying to overthrow the fragile democracy and establish a Communist republic. –Pakistan—President Pervez Musharraf faces opposition and assassination attempts. –India—differences between Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh erupt into violence; social class problems
VS 1 Improving Agriculture
VS 2 Managing Resources The government and conservation groups are working to protect South Asia’s diverse wildlife, much of which is endangered. Dams improve access to water but also have negative effects on people and the surrounding environment. Widespread deforestation has resulted in devastating erosion and threatens wildlife. Reforestation efforts aim to replenish razed forests. Scientists are seeking solutions to the air pollution problem brought about by industrialization.
Vocab1 cash crop farm products grown to be sold or traded rather than used by the farm family
Vocab3 green revolution program begun in the 1960s to produce higher-yielding, more productive strains of wheat, rice, and other food crops
Vocab4 biomass plant and animal waste used especially as a source of fuel
Vocab5 cottage industry a business that employs workers in their homes
Vocab8 sustainable development technological and economic growth that does not deplete the human and natural resources of a given area
Vocab9 Chipko India’s “tree-hugger” movement that protects forests through reforestation and by supporting limited timber production
Vocab10 poaching illegal hunting of protected animals
Vocab11 nuclear proliferation the spreading development of nuclear arms
Vocab12 Dalits the “oppressed”; in India, people assigned to the lowest social class