Presentation on theme: "East Asia terms. Silk Road The primary trade route between China and the west from 2 nd century BC until 16 th Century AD Known as the most enduring trade."— Presentation transcript:
East Asia terms
Silk Road The primary trade route between China and the west from 2 nd century BC until 16 th Century AD Known as the most enduring trade route in human history.
Silk Road Very seldom did people travel the entire route. Merchants mostly traveled from one segment, trading with other merchants who would then travel the next segment.
Silk Road Not only were luxury goods traded, such as silk, gold, silver, ivory, horses, and wool, but also ideas and information, such as new religions
Dynasty a ruling family that passes control from one generation to the next
China’s Dynasties From at least 1766BC to this century, China was ruled by dynasties. One dynasty lasted more than 800 years, while another lasted only fifteen years.
China’s Dynasties Hsia BC Most historians believed the Hsia to be a mythical dynasty, but recent archaeological findings have verified their existence. Shang BC a highly developed culture - a writing system still in use today - an agricultural economy - and armies of thousands whose commanders rode in chariots. Chou BC- 256BC The semi-nomadic Chou people from northwestern China overthrew the Shang king. The Chou court developed a feudal society in China. Ch’in - 221BC-206BC Chinese writing systems were unified. Chinese defenses were strengthened by creating the Great Wall.
China’s Dynasties Han - 206BC-AD220 The Han Dynasty is often compared to the Roman Empire. It is considered the "Golden Age of Chinese History.” Tang The largest, wealthiest, and most populous in the world at that time. The Tang based their laws on based on Confucian thought. Song The Song Dynasty continued the flowering of Chinese culture. Yuan (Mongol) Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty after his Mongol tribes defeated China. The Yuan encouraged Europeans to travel overland to China; Marco Polo was the most famous of the early Europeans to make the journey. Ming Founded by a Buddhist monk who led a peasant army to victory over the Mongols. Qing (Manchu) Founded by conquerors from Manchuria in 1644, the Qing was the last imperial dynasty of China. When it was overthrown in 1911, China became a republic.
Confucianism A Chinese philosophy developed by Confucius in the 500’s BC taught the importance of moral character and of individuals taking responsibility for the state and society
Taoism A Chinese philosophy founded in the 500’s BC by Lao Tzu.
Taoism The goal of Taoism is to find harmony with nature.
Genghis Khan Great Mongol leader who invaded China in 1211
Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Khan Conquered China and took the Chinese name Yuan Began Yuan Dynasty Only foreign dynasty to rule China
The Great Wall 1500-mile stone and brick wall built in China to keep out invading Mongols
Question… can the Great Wall be seen from the moon?
No! However, it can be seen from a low orbit in space!
Communism An economic and political system in which property is owned collectively and labor is organized in a way that is supposed to benefit all people.
The Long March 1934 Fleeing China’s Nationalist government, Mao Zedong and 87,000 other Communist soldiers began marching to northern China. 368 days later less than 10,000 men reached their goal.
The Long March The Long March had to cross very difficult terrain such as snowy mountains. Today is considered one of the greatest physical feats of the Twentieth Century.
Mao Zedong Communist leader of China Implemented policies such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution
Mao Zedong Supported by millions of peasants because of the promise of land, Mao Zedong and his People’s Liberation Army defeated the Nationalist (standing government of China at the time) and established a Communist China.
Mao Zedong Wanted to establish a socialist society. Land taken from wealthy landowners and given to poor establish collective farms Increase food production More could work in industry
Great Leap Forward 1958 Program under Mao Zedong to help speed up economic growth in China
Great Leap Forward Collective farms combined into communes – some with more than 30,000 people who lived and worked together Hoped this would create a classless society Profits were illegal – so people only produced for themselves Thus, failure Bad weather Peasants hatred of new system 15 million people died of starvation
Cultural Revolution 1965 – 1968 Mao Zedong’s continued attempt to create a classless and new society Wanted to eliminate the “Four Olds” Old ideas Old culture Old customs Old habits
Cultural Revolution Little red book The most important source of knowledge in all areas
Cultural Revolution Red Guards formed – formed mostly of young people Destroyed temples, books written by foreigners and foreign music Vicious attacks on those who deviated from Mao’s plan or were “too western”
What aspects of the Cultural Revolution do we see in this illustration?
Isolationism A policy of isolating one’s country from contact and influence with other countries. The purpose … to keep out foreign ideas and protect the country’s values and beliefs.
Tiananmen Square A square in Beijing, China, where thousands of protesters gathered in demonstration against Communism.
On June 3, 1989, the Communist government of China sent in the military to take whatever action necessary to stop the demonstration. After firing into the crowds, mostly consisting of college- aged students, several hundred were killed and many more were injured.
Opium War A war over the trade of the drug opium, which was fought between China and Britain from 1839 – 1842.
Taiping Rebellion One of the greatest peasant revolts in China’s history. Raged for 14 years and took 20 million lives.
Boxer Rebellion A rebel group known as the Boxers rose up against the Qing Dynasty.
Boxer Rebellion Purpose … to defeat the dynasty and force all foreigners out.
Boxer Rebellion British, French, Russian, Japanese, and American troops joined together and defeated the Boxers. This left China’s government in turmoil.
Subsistence Farming growing only enough crops to sustain your family
Cottage Industries An industry where the creation of products and services is home- based, rather than factory-based.
Cottage Industries Cottage industries—the local production of traditional are seen as a way to employ the unemployed. In Nepal, these industries have included pottery, handmade paper and products, woodwork, metal work, weaving, embroidery, and basket making, and draw on artistic traditions dating back centuries. They contribute about 60 percent of industrial production.
Typhoon A tropical hurricane in the western Pacific and China Seas
Tsunami an unusually large sea wave produced by a seaquake or undersea volcanic eruption
Population density The number of people relative to the space occupied by them
Even though India is 2 nd in population to China, why do you think they have a higher population density?
Archipelago A large group or chain of islands
Clan A group of families who trace their descent from a common ancestor Yamato clan in Japan emerged as the most powerful clan and established a government that ruled for hundreds of years.
Shinto A Japanese religion that developed around 300 BC.
Shinto teaches that supernatural beings called kami live in all objects and forces of nature.
Shinto The most common Shinto symbol – torii – the shrine gate. This one is called a floating torii.
Mt. Fuji – sacred mountain to Shinto
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Cities bombed by US during WWII with atomic bombs
Hiroshima before the bomb
Hiroshima after the bomb
120,000 killed initially by the bombs … within the next weeks, months, and years the numbers would increase to more than 240,000
Hiroshima Building that partially survived the bomb …