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Industrial Revolution

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Presentation on theme: "Industrial Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 Industrial Revolution
Chapter 19 – World History

2 Dawn of the Industrial age
Industrial Revolution began in mid 1700’s Britain was the ideal place It was a slow process Simple hand tools - worked land, made own clothes, grew own food, very little travel Complex machinery – people bought clothes and food from others, traveled by train or steamships

3 Changes due to industry
Anesthetic, drug that prevented pain during surgery, was discovered by an American dentist The French measured the speed of light Farming methods improved Dutch with the dike idea and fertilizer from livestock to renew soil British mix different types of soil for higher crop growth Crop rotation Jethro Tull invented seed drill to improve gardens; rows vs scattered seed

4 Greed - Landowners Rich landowners began to take over large area of land formerly owned and operated by peasant farmers, enclosures The larger farm land needed less labor, so many became unemployed Small landowners were forced off their land because they could not compete with the larger landowners Individuals began to move to the cities for work provide the laborer force for the Industrial Revolution Farming foods increase rapidly

5 New technology James Watt – Scottish man
Improved Thomas Newcomen steam engines that was powered by coal Pump water out of mines Key power source of the Industrial Revolution Open ideas to power locomotives and steamships i.e. – measure of mechanical and electrical power – the watt

6 Iron and coal Coal was the key source during the Industrial Revolution
Fuel for heating, running machinery, and production of iron Iron was vital Construction like steam ships, iron bridges, and railroads Darby used coal to smelt iron, separate iron from it ore

7 Paper Plane Activity Cottage System vs. Factory system
Manufacturing paper planes Two groups – teacher selected Assembly line – one boss; instructions; assign duties; complete and pass Cottage industry – independently; instructions; individualize the plane 15 minutes of work time


9 Britain Leads the way Why was Britain the ideal place?
Rich natural resources – waterways, ports, coal supply, iron, rivers Population/Work force – movement of people to the cities after the enclosures Gained much wealth over the past years in trading, primarily from slave trade Businessmen had capital/money to invest adventure in enterprises – business organizations such as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories Willing to risk their finances Economy was strong and growing

10 Putting out system/cottage industry
Cotton was a major textile Merchants hired peasants to work from home to spin it into threads, known as putting out system or cottage industry Slow process Cost business owners time and money Textile machinery were invented to boost production Cotton and thread was in high demand

11 Cotton Gin by eli Whitney
South was booming in the cotton industry Harvest was time consuming task because the cotton had to be cleaned of dirt and seeds Eli Whitney invented a machine that separated the seeds and dirt from the cotton at a fast rate This increased the production rate of cotton

12 Factory industry The new inventions of the flying shuttle, spinning jenny, cotton gin, and water frame crippled the putting out system/cottage industry Production was faster and larger quantities The machines were too large for the homes, so they placed them in large buildings and the worker had to travel to them to work each day Factory idea was born

13 Transportation Goods were in high demand
Convenient, fast, and cheap transportation was needed to deliver to the large demand Roadways were constructed and a fee was charged to travel known as a turnpike Canals were designed, bridges become stronger, and harbors upgraded An inexpensive way to move goods such as coal and raw materials Lost their appeal when the steam locomotive were introduced

14 Railways/Railroads Efficient way of transportation
Cheap Didn’t have to follow the flow of the rivers/waterways Railway could be built anywhere The fast transportation; goods were not scarce, available to all Prices began to fall and affordable to all Economic and Social change was affected

15 Cottage/Putting Out Industry
A cottage industry is a system of production which takes place in private homes rather than in a factory, with the tools and other means of production individually owned. Often products produced by a cottage industry are hand- made and/or unique in some distinctive way. Cottage industry products are often identified with an area or even with a specific family. Often a cottage industry is run by members of a single family =zqjw1T6Xxvc

16 Assembly Line production
An arrangement of workers, machines, and equipment in which the product being assembled passes consecutively from operation to operation until completed ?v=9FJ14GXBDpI

17 History of Technology

18 Flying Shuttle In 1733, John Kay invented the flying shuttle, an improvement to looms that enabled weavers to weave faster. The original shuttle contained a bobbin on to which the weft (weaving term for the crossways yarn) yarn was wound. It was normally pushed from one side of the warp (weaving term for the series of yarns that extended lengthways in a loom) to the other side by hand. Large looms needed two weavers to throw the shuttle. The flying shuttle was thrown by a leaver that could be operated by one weaver


20 Spinning Jenny Several inventions in textile machinery occurred in a relatively short time period during the industrial revolution: the flying shuttle, spinning jenny, spinning frame, and cotton gin. These inventions facilitated the handling of large quantities of harvested cotton. In 1764, a British carpenter and weaver named James Hargreaves invented an improved spinning jenny, a hand-powered multiple spinning machine that was the first machine to improve upon the spinning wheel.


22 Spinning Mule In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule that combined the moving carriage of the spinning jenny with the rollers of the water frame. The spinning mule gave the spinner great control over the weaving process, many different types of yarn could be produced. It was improved upon by William Horrocks, known for his invention of the variable speed batton in 1813.


24 Social impact of the industrial revolution
Great fortune was achieved, lifestyles increased, standard of living better, and social classes were created, middle vs. working class Life of the poor and working class was less than desirable Pay was low Conditions were harsh No job security Children were part of the workforce Long hours

25 New industrial cities With the rapid movement of people to the cities, urbanization, for job opportunities, cities grew at a rapid rate A new social classes were born Middle class – owned factories, mines, and railroads Working class – performed the labor in the factories, mines, and railroads Life style of the middle class was comfortable Many rags to riches stories Pride in hard work and getting ahead concept

26 Working class lived in apartment style dwellings called tenements
No sanitation or running water Contaminated rivers causing diseases such as cholera Labor Unions, organizations, were secretly existed but were illegal During protest they wore mask and operated at night Religion became a way of life – Methodist Faith, forgiveness of sin, better life, hymns and sermons

27 Life in factories and mines
Different from farm work or putting out system Long hours, 12 – 16 days, 6 – 7 days a week Work on a rigid schedule vs. own pace on the farm Women paid half of men salaries More adaptable, work better with machines, easier to manage Miners faced worse conditions Paid more than factory work Work more dangerous Explosions, flooding, and collapsing tunnels

28 Children workforce Children worked in the factories and mines
Age 7 – 8, but sometimes as young as 5 years old The conditions were horrible Work was needed to help support the family Child labor laws were to reduce work days to 12 hours and remove children under 9 years old

29 Results of industrialization

30 Advances in new technology Activity

31 Key innovations Watt Atmospheric Steam Engine Modern Day Steam Engines

32 Cotton Gin – Eli Whitney
Key innovations Cotton Gin – Eli Whitney Water Frame The South became the cotton producing part of the country because Whitney’s cotton gin was able to successfully pull out the seeds from the cotton bolls. a spinning frame that could be run by water. The water frame provided more power to the spinning frame than those operated by human beings

33 First, railroad spurred industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport. Second, the railroad boom created hundreds of thousands of new jobs for both railroad workers and miner. Third, the railroads boosted England's agricultural and fishing industries. Finally, by making travel easier, railroads encouraged country people to take distant city jobs

34 Impact for children and women activity
?v=E_tFFQyEu_Q ?v=MSdYEc_ctFE – Oliver Twist ?v=3mDuw62QD6E State of the World’s Children - Unicef

35 England before and after industrial revolution

36 New Way of Thinking Economy was beginning to struggle due to the large population growth vs. the shortage food supply. Thomas Malthus – British economist, he was trying to understand the struggles of the Industrial Revolution and develop ideas to help control it Population growth Food supply

37 Laissez-faire Economics
Enlightenment period idea – free market with little government control (Individual rights) Hands off approach Malthus encouraged families to have fewer children to help control the population growth. He believed that the factory system was not health for the Industrial Period because he felt it changed people’s lifestyle for the worse

38 Malthus and Ricardo (another British economist) shared views that the government should not provide relief because this was the best cure for poverty. Ricardo believed that wages should only be increase enough to cover the cost of living. If a family received additional funds, they would have the idea to increase their family size. This would have a negative effect on the economy.

39 Utilitarian's Utilitarianism – the idea that the goal of society should be “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” of its citizens Jeremy Bentham was a British economist who believed in this idea Did the law provide more pleasure or happiness than pain? He saw the need for government to become involved under certain circumstances

40 Socialist Other believed that a large gap was being developed between the rich and poor The idea of socialism was born to help bridge the gap The people as a whole rather than private individual would own and operate the means of production, factories, farms, railways, etc.

41 Robert Owens He had an utopia idea.
Robert Owens believed in this idea. Model community Reduced work hours Built homes for workers School for children Store to purchase goods He believed if everyone was happy there would not be fighting Business could offer decent living for workers and still make a profit.

42 Karl Marx - Communism Marx was a German philosopher who did not believe in an utopia society. He believed in a scientific theory that involved the conflict in social classes Communism, a system in which governments led by a small elite controlled all economic and political life, was born Social class divided into two – “haves” and “have-nots” Proletariat were the “have-nots,” working class

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