2Dawn of the Industrial age Industrial Revolution began in mid 1700’sBritain was the ideal placeIt was a slow processSimple hand tools - worked land, made own clothes, grew own food, very little travelComplex machinery – people bought clothes and food from others, traveled by train or steamships
3Changes due to industry Anesthetic, drug that prevented pain during surgery, was discovered by an American dentistThe French measured the speed of lightFarming methods improvedDutch with the dike idea and fertilizer from livestock to renew soilBritish mix different types of soil for higher crop growthCrop rotationJethro Tull invented seed drill to improve gardens; rows vs scattered seed
4Greed - LandownersRich landowners began to take over large area of land formerly owned and operated by peasant farmers, enclosuresThe larger farm land needed less labor, so many became unemployedSmall landowners were forced off their land because they could not compete with the larger landownersIndividuals began to move to the cities for work provide the laborer force for the Industrial RevolutionFarming foods increase rapidly
5New technology James Watt – Scottish man Improved Thomas Newcomen steam engines that was powered by coalPump water out of minesKey power source of the Industrial RevolutionOpen ideas to power locomotives and steamshipsi.e. – measure of mechanical and electrical power – the watt
6Iron and coal Coal was the key source during the Industrial Revolution Fuel for heating, running machinery, and production of ironIron was vitalConstruction like steam ships, iron bridges, and railroadsDarby used coal to smelt iron, separate iron from it ore
7Paper Plane Activity Cottage System vs. Factory system Manufacturing paper planesTwo groups – teacher selectedAssembly line – one boss; instructions; assign duties; complete and passCottage industry – independently; instructions; individualize the plane15 minutes of work time
9Britain Leads the way Why was Britain the ideal place? Rich natural resources – waterways, ports, coal supply, iron, riversPopulation/Work force – movement of people to the cities after the enclosuresGained much wealth over the past years in trading, primarily from slave tradeBusinessmen had capital/money to investadventure in enterprises – business organizations such as shipping, mining, railroads, or factoriesWilling to risk their financesEconomy was strong and growing
10Putting out system/cottage industry Cotton was a major textileMerchants hired peasants to work from home to spin it into threads, known as putting out system or cottage industrySlow processCost business owners time and moneyTextile machinery were invented to boost productionCotton and thread was in high demand
11Cotton Gin by eli Whitney South was booming in the cotton industryHarvest was time consuming task because the cotton had to be cleaned of dirt and seedsEli Whitney invented a machine that separated the seeds and dirt from the cotton at a fast rateThis increased the production rate of cotton
12Factory industryThe new inventions of the flying shuttle, spinning jenny, cotton gin, and water frame crippled the putting out system/cottage industryProduction was faster and larger quantitiesThe machines were too large for the homes, so they placed them in large buildings and the worker had to travel to them to work each dayFactory idea was born
13Transportation Goods were in high demand Convenient, fast, and cheap transportation was needed to deliver to the large demandRoadways were constructed and a fee was charged to travel known as a turnpikeCanals were designed, bridges become stronger, and harbors upgradedAn inexpensive way to move goods such as coal and raw materialsLost their appeal when the steam locomotive were introduced
14Railways/Railroads Efficient way of transportation CheapDidn’t have to follow the flow of the rivers/waterwaysRailway could be built anywhereThe fast transportation; goods were not scarce, available to allPrices began to fall and affordable to allEconomic and Social change was affected
15Cottage/Putting Out Industry A cottage industry is a system of production which takes place in private homes rather than in a factory, with the tools and other means of production individually owned. Often products produced by a cottage industry are hand- made and/or unique in some distinctive way. Cottage industry products are often identified with an area or even with a specific family. Often a cottage industry is run by members of a single family=zqjw1T6Xxvc
16Assembly Line production An arrangement of workers, machines, and equipment in which the product being assembled passes consecutively from operation to operation until completed?v=9FJ14GXBDpI
18Flying ShuttleIn 1733, John Kay invented the flying shuttle, an improvement to looms that enabled weavers to weave faster. The original shuttle contained a bobbin on to which the weft (weaving term for the crossways yarn) yarn was wound. It was normally pushed from one side of the warp (weaving term for the series of yarns that extended lengthways in a loom) to the other side by hand. Large looms needed two weavers to throw the shuttle. The flying shuttle was thrown by a leaver that could be operated by one weaver
20Spinning JennySeveral inventions in textile machinery occurred in a relatively short time period during the industrial revolution: the flying shuttle, spinning jenny, spinning frame, and cotton gin. These inventions facilitated the handling of large quantities of harvested cotton. In 1764, a British carpenter and weaver named James Hargreaves invented an improved spinning jenny, a hand-powered multiple spinning machine that was the first machine to improve upon the spinning wheel.
22Spinning MuleIn 1779, Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule that combined the moving carriage of the spinning jenny with the rollers of the water frame. The spinning mule gave the spinner great control over the weaving process, many different types of yarn could be produced. It was improved upon by William Horrocks, known for his invention of the variable speed batton in 1813.
24Social impact of the industrial revolution Great fortune was achieved, lifestyles increased, standard of living better, and social classes were created, middle vs. working classLife of the poor and working class was less than desirablePay was lowConditions were harshNo job securityChildren were part of the workforceLong hours
25New industrial citiesWith the rapid movement of people to the cities, urbanization, for job opportunities, cities grew at a rapid rateA new social classes were bornMiddle class – owned factories, mines, and railroadsWorking class – performed the labor in the factories, mines, and railroadsLife style of the middle class was comfortableMany rags to riches storiesPride in hard work and getting ahead concept
26Working class lived in apartment style dwellings called tenements No sanitation or running waterContaminated rivers causing diseases such as choleraLabor Unions, organizations, were secretly existed but were illegalDuring protest they wore mask and operated at nightReligion became a way of life – MethodistFaith, forgiveness of sin, better life, hymns and sermons
27Life in factories and mines Different from farm work or putting out systemLong hours, 12 – 16 days, 6 – 7 days a weekWork on a rigid schedule vs. own pace on the farmWomen paid half of men salariesMore adaptable, work better with machines, easier to manageMiners faced worse conditionsPaid more than factory workWork more dangerousExplosions, flooding, and collapsing tunnels
28Children workforce Children worked in the factories and mines Age 7 – 8, but sometimes as young as 5 years oldThe conditions were horribleWork was needed to help support the familyChild labor laws were to reduce work days to 12 hours and remove children under 9 years old
31Key innovationsWatt Atmospheric Steam EngineModern Day Steam Engines
32Cotton Gin – Eli Whitney Key innovationsCotton Gin – Eli WhitneyWater FrameThe South became the cotton producing part of the country because Whitney’s cotton gin was able to successfully pull out the seeds from the cotton bolls.a spinning frame that could be run by water. The water frame provided more power to the spinning frame than those operated by human beings
33First, railroad spurred industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport. Second, the railroad boom created hundreds of thousands of new jobs for both railroad workers and miner. Third, the railroads boosted England's agricultural and fishing industries. Finally, by making travel easier, railroads encouraged country people to take distant city jobs
34Impact for children and women activity ?v=E_tFFQyEu_Q?v=MSdYEc_ctFE – Oliver Twist?v=3mDuw62QD6E State of the World’s Children - Unicef
36New Way of ThinkingEconomy was beginning to struggle due to the large population growth vs. the shortage food supply.Thomas Malthus – British economist, he was trying to understand the struggles of the Industrial Revolution and develop ideas to help control itPopulation growthFood supply
37Laissez-faire Economics Enlightenment period idea – free market with little government control (Individual rights)Hands off approachMalthus encouraged families to have fewer children to help control the population growth.He believed that the factory system was not health for the Industrial Period because he felt it changed people’s lifestyle for the worse
38Malthus and Ricardo (another British economist) shared views that the government should not provide relief because this was the best cure for poverty.Ricardo believed that wages should only be increase enough to cover the cost of living. If a family received additional funds, they would have the idea to increase their family size. This would have a negative effect on the economy.
39Utilitarian'sUtilitarianism – the idea that the goal of society should be “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” of its citizensJeremy Bentham was a British economist who believed in this ideaDid the law provide more pleasure or happiness than pain?He saw the need for government to become involved under certain circumstances
40SocialistOther believed that a large gap was being developed between the rich and poorThe idea of socialism was born to help bridge the gapThe people as a whole rather than private individual would own and operate the means of production, factories, farms, railways, etc.
41Robert Owens He had an utopia idea. Robert Owens believed in this idea.Model communityReduced work hoursBuilt homes for workersSchool for childrenStore to purchase goodsHe believed if everyone was happy there would not be fightingBusiness could offer decent living for workers and still make a profit.
42Karl Marx - CommunismMarx was a German philosopher who did not believe in an utopia society. He believed in a scientific theory that involved the conflict in social classesCommunism, a system in which governments led by a small elite controlled all economic and political life, was bornSocial class divided into two – “haves” and “have-nots”Proletariat were the “have-nots,” working class