Presentation on theme: "T HE I NDUSTRIAL R EVOLUTION Chapter 7 and 8. B ELL R INGER -10/29 List technology that has changed the way society and economics operated over the past."— Presentation transcript:
T HE I NDUSTRIAL R EVOLUTION Chapter 7 and 8
B ELL R INGER -10/29 List technology that has changed the way society and economics operated over the past 10 years. Describe what life would be like without these.
R EVOLUTION B EGINS Shifted the way people worked Human/animal power Water and steam power Industrial revolution – era of the rise of power- driven machinery
F ACTORS OF D EVELOPMENT Exploration and colonialism – provided many raw materials and new markets Seapower – bring in raw materials Political stability – country at peace Government support – laws favoring businesses Growth of private investment – private business funding
A GRICULTURAL C HANGES Improvements (research and development) Breeding methods More varieties of crops More food = increase in population Enclosure movement – combining of smaller fields to create larger farms forced poor farmers to the city
F ACTORS OF P RODUCTION – ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS A COUNTRY NEEDS TO ACHIEVE ECONOMIC SUCCESS Factors of Production LandLaborCapital What it means How it was an advantage
I NVENTION P ATENT P ROJECT As members of the Court of Appeals, you will be assigned one of the inventions to discuss. As a group, you will keep written documentation explaining your decision. Fill out the form based on the information presented by the inventors, not personal opinion. Good Luck!
T EXTILES Weaving used to be a cottage industry Supply of both cotton and wool increased, therefore increased demand for cloth America/slavery profitable Machines took over for cottage industry, putting people out of work Factories built to house new machines (near water sources)
S TEAM P OWER First steam machines were slow Improved by James Watt Factories used steam, no longer need steady supply of water Moved closer to people and supplies Steam powered transportation Locomotive Ships/boats Needed fuel to heat water = coal Factories build near coal mines
T HE S PINNING J ENNY
T HE F LYING S HUTTLE
W ATT ’ S S TEAM E NGINE
I NDUSTRY AND THE W EST Key to industry = freedom of economic activity Democratic governments (more freedoms) Competition is good U.S. Industry Hamilton argued it would help U.S. gain economic independence from G.B. Samuel Slater brought Arkwright’s machine design to U.S. Francis Cabot Lowell build first all-in-one mill
S PREAD TO E UROPE AND A SIA Belgium next – William Cockerill France plagued by political unrest. Mid 1800s industrialized Germany lacked central government. Railways helped industry grow. Japan industrialized 1860s under modernization of Meiji government China, Russia, and India industrialized 1900s EuropeAsia
Q UESTIONS FOR P RIMARY S OURCES What are the conditions being described/pictured? How did the Industrial Revolution lead to these conditions? What are the effects on the living and working conditions based on the sources? What recommendation would you give to address this issue?
Life Before Industrial Revolution Life During Industrial Revolution Causes for change
N EW E CONOMY Factories required large amounts of capital 3 tiered system Wealthy businessmen – invest and own Employees to run and supervise Employees to run machines Little incentive to work hard Plentiful workers Women and children (pay less) Luddite movement – riots of unhappy cottage workers who destroyed factories
C HANGING L ABOR C ONDITIONS Government didn’t want to interfere with business Workers formed labor unions – organizations representing workers’ interests Organized strikes British parliament banned unions and strikes Pressure from public Sadler Report
M ASS P RODUCTION American System Mass production – system of manufacturing large numbers of identical items Interchangeable parts – identical machine made parts Assembly line – each worker performs one step in the manufacturing process Advantages – dramatic increase in production; costs went down; more affordable Disadvantages – repetitious jobs
N EW E CONOMIC I DEAS Laissez-faire – governments shouldn’t control trade Market systems where economy is free from restrictions British government agreed Concerned about population growth Population would grow faster than food production Only curbed by war, disease, and famine Poverty would never go away Britain used to justify limited charity Adam SmithThomas Malthus
N EW B USINESS L EADERS Entrepreneurs – someone who starts a new business Pooled money to create large corporations Began to buy and sell companies for profit Famous examples include Andrew Carnegie – steel Cornelius Vanderbilt – railroads John D. Rockefeller – oil Major contributions Criticized for harsh treatment of workers No strikes/unions
A DDITIONAL Q UESTIONS Carnegie Worksheet: What were the positive and negative impacts that Carnegie had as a business leader? What do you think his most important legacy is and why? Communist Manifest Worksheet: Based on this excerpt, what is Marx and Engels’ definition of communism? Do you think the original theory is used or interpreted the same today? Explain.
S OCIALISM Distresses upon working class families Socialism - a political and economic system in which society, usually in the form of government, owns the means of production common distribution to all In this utopian society, workers Use abilities for the good of society Everyone's needs would be met Robert Owen – created New Lanark and New Harmony after this idea
N EW L ANARK, S COTLAND
N EW S OCIALISM Industrial capitalism caused more harm than good The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Blamed industrial capitalism for hardships Communism - economic and political system in which government owns the means of production and controls economic planning; without social classes
All history is the history of class struggle Two groups constantly opposed Bourgeoisie – middle class Proletariat – working class Oppressors controlled production and workers Struggle would lead to a violent revolution Oppressed (proletariat) would overthrow the oppressors and establish a dictatorship Create a classless society
T YPES OF S YSTEMS Communism – economic and political system in which government owns the means of production and controls economic planning; without social classes Socialism – a political and economic system in which society, usually in the form of government, owns the means of production Utopianism – a ideal society in which poverty and social evils are eliminated Capitalism – an economic system in which most businesses are privately owned
T YPES OF E CONOMIC S YSTEMS explain how each aimed to change or benefit society could this theory work today? why or why not? capitalism utopianism socialism communism