Presentation on theme: "Ruta graveolens. General description: Hardy, evergreen herb with a woody stem at the lower part. Its leaves are blue-green in color. It is commonly known."— Presentation transcript:
General description: Hardy, evergreen herb with a woody stem at the lower part. Its leaves are blue-green in color. It is commonly known for its terrible smell and bitter taste which is used for the plants to keep insects away. Its fruits are 4-5 lobbed capsules which contains numerous seeds. Common names: Ave-grace, Common Rue, Garden Rue, German Rue, Herb of Grace, Herby grass Plant Family: Rutacaea (Citrus Family ) Origin: Mediterranean or Western Asia. Parts used: aerial parts, harvested in the flowering season. Ethno medical uses: flea and Insect repellent (used during the plague), defense against witches, antidote for poisoning, to improve eyesight, against epilepsy, as a menstrual tonic to induce abortion.
Ruta graveolens Medicinal use: It is vigorously used in homeopathy medicines Rue has many medicinal uses though it is primarily used to stimulate the beginning of the menstruation flow, mainly in horses. In some countries rue is used to treat hysteria, epilepsy, medical disorder of brain, colic, nausea, intestinal worms, antidote for atropine poisoning, as well as eye problems. Rue is also said to have anti-spasmodic properties. It is also taken for coughs, stomach aches and flatulence.
Ruta graveolens Adults and children:1 or 2 tablets to be dissolved on the tongue. Unless otherwise directed; for acute conditions, 1 dose 2 hourly for up to 6 doses. Thereafter and where less acute, 1 dose 3 times a day between meals for no longer than a month. When relief is obtained reduce the dosage frequency or discontinue. Death can result in extended or large doses.
Ruta graveolens Culinary uses: Rue berry and leaves are an important source of cuisines in Ethiopia. The fresh leaves are used to flavor coffee, while the dried berries and leaves are part of a classic seasoning mix called berbere. It is also used as a traditional flavoring in Greece and other Mediterranean countries. Rue seeds are used in porridge and its bitter leaves can be added to eggs, fish, chicken, cheese, and wine to produce a meat sauce.
Lavandula augustifolia is native to the Mediterranean region but now they are grown and cultivated in many parts of Europe, United States, and Asia. They are perennial shrubs. They belong to the Lamiaceae “mint” family of flowering plants. [e.g.: oregano, thyme, mint, and basil] They are aromatic. Hence much of its traditional uses were related to its potent fragrance. They are “sun-loving” and does not grow well in even partial shade. They grow best in slightly alkaline soil (pH of 6.4-8.2) Growth height: 1-3 feet
In England: In the Victorian Era, English royalties were particularly fond of Lavender. Queen Victoria in particular encouraged the use of lavender. She anointed officials with it and had fresh lavender bundles brought to her everyday. It became a symbol for cleanliness and purity. This brought high demands for the flower. Hence, cultivation and commercial farming of lavender began; “English Lavender” began. Interesting Notes in History: They say that lavender has been used for over 2000 years. In Egypt: They used it in their mummification process, as perfumes, and for decoration. In Rome: They used it as a spice for cooking and added them to bathing water. [“lavare” latin meaning ‘to wash’] Biblical context: It is referred to as “spikenard” and Mary used it to anoint Jesus. The Renaissance: It was used to protect against infections during The Plague.
Traditional / Ethnobotanical Uses antispasmodic (muscle relaxant) carminative (relieves gas from digestive tract) diuretic antiseptic acne headaches and migraines common cold induce or increase menstrual flow Modern Uses aromatherapy for insomnia, increase mental capacity, diminish fatigue and stress, antidepressant. insect repellent anti-viral and anti-bacterial purposes fragrance: in perfumes and bath products like soap spice
How lavender is administered: Tea, oils, and pills Taken internally or applied topically Many research groups are studying the potentials of Lavender. However, lavender has not been evaluated by the FDA for safety, effectiveness or purity. Side effects: Allergic contact dermatitis When taken in higher doses, may cause drowsiness
Current researches and Chemistry: CNS depressant effects of sedative-hypnotics: 1.Lavender oil exhibits CNS depressant activity, decreases movement, and induces sleep. Insomnia and stress: 2.Lavender aromatherapy exhibits to help patients with insomnia, diminish fatigue, and work as an antidepressant. Efficacy was examined by comparison with Placebo Pain-relief: 3. Lavender bath additive shows to relieve perineal discomfort from childbirth. Perillyl alcohol (a distillate of L. augustifolia) has shown to exert anticancer effects Proposed mechanism of action: Inhibits post-translational regulatory proteins (such as Ras), interfering with these pathways to regulate malignant cell proliferation. promotes apoptosis (more than 6-fold higher) has shown to lower blood cholesterol levels Proposed mechanism of action: found to suppress hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity (a rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis) thereby lowering serum cholesterol. also found in cherries, mint, and celery seeds.
Herbaceous perennial grows to a height of 1 - 2 feet Range and habitat: moist, grassy upland meadows in the hills and mountains of northern and central Europe and Siberia. It is also found sparsely in the northwestern United States Native to the mountains of Europe and Asia been used for medicinal purposes since the 1500s Parts Used: Fresh or dried flower heads and the roots
Helenalin Sesquiterpene lactone Flower heads Anti-inflammatory for sprains, bruises, and strains the same effect as the use of NSAIDs (ibuprofen) in treating the symptoms of hand osteoarthritis Topical, pills, or ointments Can develop an allergic reaction on the skin Poisonous if ingested in large quantities – internal bleeding of the digestive tract
Thymol Roots Vasodilators -Relaxes muscles, veins Antiseptic Oral treatment of gingivitis, infections, small wounds
Thymus vulgaris (Common Thyme) Of the Lamiaceae/Labiatae (mint family) Also known as: Garden thyme, German Winter thyme, French summer thyme, Narrow leaved French, Greek Grey, Broad Leaf English, etc. Variety due to minute seed differences. Native to Western Mediterranean and Southern Italy but now world-wide Naturalized in the United States in DE, NY, ME, PA. Thrives in full sun and can tolerate shade. Cultivated all over the world for culinary, medicinal and pest-control uses.
Thymus vulgaris Over 15000 recipes using Thyme Flavoring comes mainly from the dried leaves A Savory herb used to season and flavor main course dishes such as fish, poultry, soups, vegetables, herb butters, cottage cheese, etc. Various cultivars chosen for look and particular flavors. Culinary Uses
Thymus vulgaris During Medieval times, thyme was considered a symbol of courage – Ladies would give thyme embroidered scarves to their Knights as they left for the Crusades. Middle Ages: belief that thyme tea would prevent nightmares and enable the drinker to see nymphs and fairies. Herbalists recommended sleeping on thyme and inhaling it as remedies for melancholy and epilepsy (considered a stimulant and an antispasmodic). Used in monasteries in France and Spain for cough remedies, digestive aids and treatment for intestinal parasites. One of the main ingredients used by Egyptians in their mummification (Thymol). Ingredient in a poultice of the Native American Blackfeet to clean and treat minor wounds. Ethnobotanical Uses
Thymus vulgaris 1725 German apothecary discovers active ingredient in thyme oil: Thymol Active ingredient in Listerine and Vick’s Vapor Rub Shown to have antifungal and antibacterial properties and effective against salmonella and staphylococcus bacteria and athlete’s foot. Ingesting or inhaling oil loosens phlegm and relaxes the muscles of the respiratory tract – used to treat coughs due to whooping cough, bronchitis and emphysema. Used as a fumigant, antiseptic, disinfectant and mouthwash – used to treat infections due to gingivitis. Used as an active ingredient in animal repellants and pesticides. FDA and EPA have declared Thymol safe to use, but over-medication can lead to intestinal problems like diarrhea and bloating, and medicinal doses are not recommended for pregnant women.