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Presentation on theme: "MIDWEST FIT FEST 2012 SPORTS NUTRITION BY: LESLIE CLEM MPH, RD, LD."— Presentation transcript:


2 THE DIETITIAN: LESLIE CLEM Registered & Licensed Dietitian Master of Public Health Certified in Adult Weight Management Founder of Healthy Hearts Nutrition LLC


4 SPORTS NUTRITION Eating right allows your body to adapt to training, helps you recover after exercise and attain peak performance. Applies to the elite athlete and the active person, equally Eating right will: Help you train longer and at a higher intensity Delay the onset of fatigue Promote recovery Help your body adapt to workouts Improve body composition and strength Enhance concentration Help maintain healthy immune function Reduce the chance of injury Reduce the risk of heat cramps and stomach aches Maintain blood glucose concentrations throughout exercise

5 BEFORE EXERCISE-PRE COMPETITION MEAL Your pre-training meal is as important as pre-competition meal Eat well the night before your competition. 3-4 hours prior to start of game, match or meet Slightly smaller than a regular meal Medium serving of lean protein: Adequate protein before exercise may help reduce post exercise soreness Big serving of starchy carbs Salty foods or added salt Plenty of caffeine-free fluids Low in fat and fiber to facilitate gastric emptying and minimize gastrointestinal distress

6 30-60 minutes prior to competition, make sure your fuel stores are “topped off” by consuming 30 grams of carbohydrates + fluids. Examples: 2 cups of sports drink (Gatorade), 8-10 ounce juice box, piece of fruit, granola bar, ½ bagel, fruit snacks. TOP OFF FUEL

7 NOT IDEAL SITUATION? What if I don’t have 3-4 hours to eat before I compete?  1-2 hours before: small snack & liquids  2-3 hours before: small meal & liquids  3-4 hours before: moderate sized meal & liquids  Foods to Avoid: fried foods, high-fat meats, creamy sauces, soups, gravies, creamy dressings, biscuits, spicy foods, entrée salads, cakes, pies, regular ice cream, sugary cereals, soda, whole milk, & foods you’ve never tried before!

8 NUTRITION THROUGHOUT COMPETITION  If your competition lasts longer than 1 hour, take in carbs & fluids during exercise  Most athletes burn 30-60 grams of carbohydrates during an hour of hard exercise  Too little fluid or too much carbohydrate can result in cramping and other intestinal problems  Pick carbohydrates that are easily absorbed (avoid foods with high fat and high fiber)

9  Between events? <1 hour: drink at least 8 ounces of fluid and have high carbohydrate snack. Examples: water, sports drink, bagels, graham crackers, fig bars, saltines, grapes, berries, apple slices, bananas, fruit juice >1 hour: drink at least 12 ounces of fluid and have carbohydrate/protein snack. Examples: ½ peanut butter & jelly sandwich, bagel with cheese, pb & crackers, trail mix, yogurt with cereal, or sports bar SEVERAL COMPETITIONS OR RACES IN ONE DAY

10 EATING FOR RECOVERY Restore fluid & electrolytes (sodium & potassium) lost in sweat Replace energy in the muscle, by consuming carbohydrates within 30 minutes of exercise Provide protein to aid in repair of damaged muscle tissue and to stimulate new tissues. Eat within 15-60 minutes post workout Consume a full meal within 2 hours post exercise If you do not have an appetite following performance, chose liquid foods (smoothies, milk, sports beverages)

11 PROTEIN Provides essential amino acids (building blocks) to your body’s cells Aids in the development of new tissues for growth and repair Helps make important enzymes, hormones and antibodies Keeps your body’s cells in fluid balance Transports important substances in the blood Provides small amounts of energy during exercise

12 More is not always better! Many athletes consume too much protein. Excess protein can lead to dehydration and weaken your bones. It may also cause kidney and liver damage. Protein contributes to less than 10% of the fuel used during exercise, unless your exercise is longer than 2-3 hours or your carbohydrate stores are inadequate. Estimated Protein Needs Maintain Muscle Mass Gain Muscle Mass Moderate Workouts Intense Workouts WeightLow end (.5 grams/per pound) High end (1.0 grams/per pound) 120 pounds60 grams120 grams 240 pounds120 grams240 grams PROTEIN

13 VEGETARIAN ATHLETES Eat a variety of plant-based protein sources to meet your daily protein and amino acid needs: legumes, tofu, texturized vegetable and soy protein, quinoa, nuts and seeds Include plant-based iron-rich foods to facilitate oxygen transport in the body and promote optimal respiratory function throughout exercise: legumes, nuts, seeds, whole and enriched grains, dark green leafy vegetables, dried fruit Consume foods high in Vitamin C to increase iron absorption Select foods high in calcium and vitamin D to build strong bones and prevent stress fractures: dairy products, green leafy veggies, fortified tofu, fortified soy milk and fruit juices, legumes, nuts If you’re vegan, chose Vitamin B12 fortified foods or take a b12 supplement daily

14 MINIMIZE DEHYDRATION Dehydration: water deficit in excess of 2-3% body mass Be alert for conditions that increase your fluid loss through sweat: Air Temperature: The higher the temperature, the greater your sweat losses Intensity: The harder you work out, the more you perspire Body Size and Gender: Larger people sweat more. Men generally sweat more than women Duration: The longer the workout, the more fluid loss Fitness. Well-trained athletes perspire more than less fit people. Why? Athletes cool their bodies through sweat more efficiently than most people because their bodies are used to the extra stress. Thus, fluid needs are higher for highly trained athletes than for less fit individuals

15 HYDRATION Effects of dehydration: early fatigue, cardiovascular stress, increase risk of heat illness, decreased performance, impaired mental performance, muscle cramps For a short workout (<60 minutes ), low to moderate intensity activity, water is a good choice to drink before, during, and after exercise Sports drinks are good options for moderate to high intensity activity lasting longer than 60 minutes If you experience high sodium losses during exercise, eat salty foods for a pre- competition meal or add salt to sports drinks consumed during exercise Replace fluid and sodium losses with watery foods that contain salt (soup, vegetable juice) Replace fluid and potassium with fruits and vegetables

16 SWEAT LOSS Sweat rates are influenced by genetics, gender, age, environmental temperature, exercise intensity, fitness and acclimatization Consuming fluids replaces sweat loss and aids cooling Prevent excessive fluid loss (>2% of body weight lost as fluid) Monitor urine color and volume Sodium helps your body retain fluid and stimulates thirst If your sweat is salty, consume sodium (sports drinks, or other sodium sources) during exercise; eat salty foods before and after prolonged exercise (>2 hours)

17 SWEAT LOSS a)Record nude body weight before exercise (lb/2.2 = kg) b)Record nude body weight after exercise (lb/2.2 = kg) c)Record change in body weight (A – B) d)Record drink volume consumed during exercise (oz x 30 = mL) e)Record urine volume excreted before post exercise weighing (oz x 30 = mL) f)Determine sweat loss (C + D – E, oz x 30 = mL) g)Record exercise time, minutes or hours h)Calculate sweat rate = F/G in mL/min or mL/hr Rehydrate quickly after a session. Remember that you will continue to lose fluid during recovery through urine and continued sweating. You need to drink 1.5 liters for every kilogram of body weight lost. (1 liter=33 ounces)


19 ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE & ALCOHOL Acts as a diuretic by increasing urine volume and interfering with rehydration Long term alcohol use diminishes protein synthesis resulting in a decrease muscle buildup Alcohol is a toxin that travels through your bloodstream, causing dehydration and slowing your body’s ability to heal itself (depresses immune functioning) Alcohol can decrease the secretion of HGH (human growth hormone) while you sleep, by as much as 70% Alcohol inhibits the absorption of nutrients (thiamin, VitaminB12, folic acid, and zinc) Suppresses fat use as a fuel for exercise Athletes that drink at least once per week have an elevated risk of injury, compared to non drinkers Impaired temperature regulation during exercise Adds calories and acts as an appetite stimulant

20 VITAMINS & MINERALS Individuals at risk for low vitamin/mineral intake are those who consume a low energy diet for extended periods of time Vitamins: essential organic compounds that function as regulators for protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Necessary to transform the potential energy in foods to chemical energy for work Minerals: inorganic elements that act as cofactors for enzymes that influence all aspects of metabolism Calcium

21 IRON Iron is required for the formation of oxygen-carrying proteins (hemoglobin and myoglobin), that supply oxygen to muscle cells Enhance iron consumption by consuming nonheme iron sources with vitamin C sources. Consume heme iron with nonheme iron to enhance nonheme iron absorption Increased risk for depleted iron stores if you are young, female, vegetarian or participating in strenuous activities One of the most prevalent nutrient deficiencies Monitor iron status(complete blood count and serum ferritin)

22 VITAMIN D Athletes in northern hemisphere or train indoors Benefits of adequate Vitamin D: Promote immune function Reduce exercise related inflammation Required for calcium absorption, regulation of serum calcium and phosphorus levels, and promotion of bone health IOM considers 4000 IU of Vitamin D per day as the upper limit of dietary supplement intake considered to be safe for teens and adults

23 SUPPLEMENTS AND ERGOGENIC AIDS Food>Supplements Manufacturers are not required to prove a supplement is safe before it is sold, or even that it works. The FDA can take action to remove or restrict the sale of a supplement only after it has been on the market and been shown to be unsafe. An ergogenic aid is a substance that claims to generate or improve work or capacity to exercise. Fact or Fraud? Boasts that it is quick and easy Uses testimonials from "real users" to promote its benefits Claims it's right for everyone States it has been used for millions of years Belittles the medical or scientific community Has a secret formulation.

24 SUPPLEMENTS, RISKS Use of vitamin and mineral supplements does not improve performance in individuals consuming nutritionally adequate diets Question about a supplements? Password: NCAA2

25 Include extra 300-500 calories/day by adding snacks and increasing portion size Consume a snack rich in carbohydrate, with 10- 20 grams of protein before and immediately after strength sessions Eat every 3-4 hours to ensure optimal nutrient availability Examples of snacks to fuel muscle growth: Flavored milk Nut butters with crackers Cottage cheese Trail mix with dried fruit Meal replacement shakes Greek yogurt GAINING WEIGHT, BUILDING MUSCLE

26 WEIGHT LOSS, MUSCLE PRESERVATION Determine your weight loss goals One pound=3500 calories Decrease energy intake, but not enough that you cannot exercise adequately Positive nitrogen balance (adequate protein intake) Cardio + strength train

27 IMMUNITY Eat foods rich in antioxidants (colorful fruits & veggies) to combat oxidative stress Select lean protein (especially those that contain iron and zinc) Include foods with omega 3 fatty acids that possess anti-inflammatory properties Chose foods that contain probiotics to enhance gastrointestinal and immune health Athletes need to acknowledge stress and the role it can play in performance and immunity; Realistic, attainable goals Sleep: HGH (human growth hormone) is produced during sleep, which aids in repair. If training is intense it may be beneficial for naps

28 Athletes, coaches, and scientists have recognized for decades that training and nutrition are highly interrelated when it comes to improving performance Nutrition can profoundly influence the molecular and cellular processes that occur in the muscle during exercise and recovery CONCLUSION

29 REFERENCES: Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics. (n.d.). Supplements and Ergogenic Acids for Athletes. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from ACSM. (n.d.). Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation in Athletes. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from American Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics. (n.d.). Eat Right for Sports and Performance. Retrieved February 18, 2012, from Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics: American Dietetic Association. (n.d.). Hydrate Right. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from Eat Right: Firth, G. (2004). For the Athlete: Alcohol and Athletic Performance. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from Kundrat, S. (2003, November). Sports Nutrition. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from IDEA: Niland, P. (2005). Immunity and the Athlete. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from Niland Nutrition: Nutrition on the Move Inc. (2009). Competition Day Nutrition. Retrieved January 29, 2012, from RK Team Nutrition: RK Team Nutrition. (2008). Protein. Retrieved January 29, 2012, from Rodriguez, N. R. (n.d.). Nutrition and Athletic Performance:Vitamins and Minerals. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from Medscape Today:

30 SCAN. (2009). Eating Before Exercise. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from Nutrition Fact Sheet: SCAN. (2009). Eating During Exercise. Retrieved February 2012, from Nutrition Fact Sheets: SCAN. (2009). Exercise Hydration. Retrieved November 13, 2011, from SCAN: Fact Sheets: SCAN. (2009). Reversing Iron Depletion. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from Nutrition Fact Sheets: Required for calcium absorption, regulation of serum calcium and phosphorus levels, and promotion of bone health SCAN. (2010). Vegetarian Eating for Athletes. Retrieved November 12, 2011, from SCAN: Nutrition Fact Sheets: USA_Fact_Sheet_Vegetarian_Eating_for_Athletes_Jul_2010.pdf SCAN. (2011). Foods to Promote Immune Function. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from Nutrition Fact Sheets: SCAN. (2011). The Sunny Side of Vitamin D. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from Nutrition Fact Sheets: http://scan- USA%20Fact%20Sheet_Jan%202011_Sunny%20Side%20of%20Vitamin%20D_(web).pdf UC San Diego. (n.d.). Alcohol and Athletic Performance. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from UC San Diego Athletic Performance Nutrition Bulletin: University of Georgia Health Center. (2012). Alcohol and Athletic Performance. Retrieved February 28, 2012, from The University Health Center:


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