Presentation on theme: "Answer the following questions (Be prepared to share your brilliant conclusions with the class) Who should produce goods and services and where should."— Presentation transcript:
Answer the following questions (Be prepared to share your brilliant conclusions with the class) Who should produce goods and services and where should this occur? Does technological change always benefit society? Explain.
*Industrial Revolution: Increased output of machine-made goods. -Began in England in mid-1700s. *New Agricultural Techniques -Enclosures: Large farm fields enclosed by fences or hedges -Two important results: 1). New agricultural methods (Crop rotation) 2). Large landowners force small famers to become tenants or abandon farming and move to city
* Why did industrialization begin in Great Britain? 1). Large population 2). Natural resources—coal, iron, rivers, harbor 3). Expanding economy -Investment, banking, loans, overseas trade, climate of progress 4). Britain had all factors of production: land, labor, capital 5). Legal protection of property
*Textile Industry -Shift from cottage industry to factory production -Weavers work faster with flying shuttles and spinning jennies -Water frame uses water power to drive spinning wheels Spinning Jenny Flying Shuttle
*Steam -Need for cheap, convenient power -James Watt improves steam engine; received funding -Entrepreneur: organizes, manages, takes business risks
*Water Transportation -Robert Fulton builds first steamboat(1807) -England’s water transport improved by canals *Road Transportation -British roads are improved; operated as toll roads *Railway Age -First steam-driven locomotive (1804) The “Rocket” (1829)
1). Railroads spur economic growth (Cheap transportation) 2). Creates new jobs (Railroad workers and miners) 3). Boosted agricultural and fishing industries (Transport over long distance) 4). Travel made easier (Demographic shifts: To cities and from cities to countryside)
Why do people move? How might industrialization have affected demographic patterns (migration, population, and urbanization) globally?
*Shift to urban areas -Period of urbanization (City building and movement of people to cities) -Factories develop in clusters (Near natural resources) -Rapid growth led to problems 1). No sanitary or building codes 2). Lack adequate housing, police protection, education 3). Deadly disease epidemics (Cholera)
*Working Conditions -Owners wanted to maximize profit -Long hours -Dangerous conditions in factories. -Prone to injury or illness -Women and children -Cheapest source of labor -Led to decreased life span and growing social tension
*Class Tension -Landowners/Aristocracy (Traditional holders of social and political power) -Growing middle class(Skilled workers, professionals, businessmen, and wealthy farmers) -Social distinctions divide at first -Late 1800s considered social equals -Upper middle: Doctors, lawyers, managers -Lower middle: Factory overseers and skilled workers -Comfortable standard of living
*Working Class -Laborers -Saw little change in status from Often resentful of efficient machines that replaced their labor -Luddites -Workers that attacked labor-saving machines throughout 1800s
*Corporations and stocks -Entrepreneurs sell shares of stock (Certain rights of company ownership) -People who buy stock become partial owners in corporation (Business owned by stockholders, but aren’t personally responsible for debts) *Spread of Industrialization -Adopt model from Britain -Belgium and Germany led way
*Rise of global inequality -Widen gap between wealthy and poor -Need raw materials from less developed regions -Europe gained tremendous economic power -Asia and Africa remain agriculture and small handicrafts *Social -Population, wealth, and health eventually rise drastically -Women spend more time away from home *Political -Greater democratic participation/reform
*Laissez-Faire Economics -Laissez Faire: Business and industry set conditions without government regulation *Adam Smith -The Wealth of Nations (1776) -Advocated free-market economy (Little to no gov’t interference) - “Invisible hand” -Three natural laws of economics (Self-interest, competition, and supply and demand)
*Capitalism-Economic system 1) Factors of production are privately owned 2) Money is invested to make a profit *Thomas Malthus -Population increases more rapidly than food supply -Without wars or epidemics, most destined to be poor *David Ricardo -Wages should be forced down as population increases
*Socialism-Economic system -Grew out of view of progress and concern for social justice 1). Factors of production owned by the public and operate for good of all 2). Gov’t should plan economy *Utilitarianism -Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill -Gov’t should try to promote greatest good for greatest number of people
*Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels -The Communist Manifesto (1848) -Society always divided along class lines -Middle class (“haves”): Bourgeoisie -Workers (“have-nots”): Proletariat -Marx believed capitalism would self-destruct and workers would overthrow employers in a violent revolution -Workers will form a “dictatorship of proletariat” -State withers away as classless society develops -Final stage: Communism-Means of production owned by people and private property cease to exist
CapitalismSocialism Individuals and businesses own property and means of production Community or the state own property and means of production Progress results when individuals follow own self-interest Progress results when a community of producers cooperate for good of all Businesses compete for consumer’s money. (Try to produce better and less expensive goods/services) Capitalists take advantage of workers so the community or state must protect workers Consumers compete in marketplace; competition shapes what businesses sell Capitalism creates unequal distribution of wealth Government should NOT interfere in economy A better system is to distribute goods according to each person’s need.
Think-Pair-Share: By yourself, please answer these questions in your notebooks. When indicated, please pair up with a neighbor to discuss, and be prepared to share those answers with the class. *What benefits and problems arise from changes in technology in the following areas: -Social -Political -Economic *What does “progress” mean?
*New discoveries -Gasoline and electricity power machines *New inventions -Telephone, radio capable of sending Morse Code *Transportation -Automobile industry -Assembly line: Cars produced with standardized, interchangeable parts -Workers have single responsibility -Aircraft industry
* Germ Theory -Louis Pasteur -Discovered bacteria and develops pasteurization -Develop vaccine for rabies -Joseph Lister -Orders surgical wards kept spotless -Wounds washed with antiseptic -Work foundation for antibiotics *Effects -Longer life expectancy
*Theory of Evolution -Charles Darwin: Challenge idea of “special creation” -1859: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection -Theory of Evolution: Species adapt and change through natural selection -Changed into Social Darwinism (Justify imperialism) *Periodic Table & Radioactivity -1869: Dmitri Mendeleev organizes all known elements -1898: Marie and Pierre Curie discovery radioactivity and win Nobel prize in 1903
*Feminism -Sought legal and economic gains for women -Supported by middle class women -Actively seek suffrage -Emmeline Pankhurst ( ) -Women’s Social and Political Union -Radical means to attain suffrage
*Social Sciences -Empirical data about human society and behavior -Psychology: Study of the human mind and behavior -Ivan Pavlov: Human actions unconscious; changed by training -Sigmund Freud: Therapy could modify behavior *Challenged Enlightenment notion that reason was supreme*
*Mass culture -Wealthy have time to enjoy new cultural pursuits -Mass culture: Appeal of art, writing, music, and other forms of entertainment to larger audience *Causes -Improvement in communication -Inventions -Shorter workday and workweek *Music & Movies -Music halls and Vaudeville -Black and white film Bela Lugosi as Dracula
*Sports -Spectator sports now entertainment -Soccer, Baseball, and Football -Based on traditional games, but organized by rules and umpires -Taught virtues for industrial world -Olympic games reintroduced in 1896 *Represents growing secularism