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1780-1815 Flip Industrial Revolution Overview. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain. It starting with the evolution of power sources and the.

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Presentation on theme: "1780-1815 Flip Industrial Revolution Overview. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain. It starting with the evolution of power sources and the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Flip Industrial Revolution Overview

2 The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain. It starting with the evolution of power sources and the successful rise of new industrial technology. Also, a new working class that suffered from bad working conditions developed.evolution of power sources bad working conditions Related Ideas Increase in Population TrendsPopulation Trends Romantic Response Sexual Division of Labor The Railroad Manchester School of Economics Flip

3 Flip Edmund Cartwright

4 Edmund Cartwright created the power loom which was water powered and made weaving faster and more efficient. The increased efficiency contributed to cottage industry workers that were a part of the putting-out system. cottage industrythe putting-out system. Related Ideas Evolution of Power Sources James Hargreaves John Kay Flip

5 Flip Sexual Division of Labor

6 During the Industrial Revolution, the men were the family’s primary wage earners and only in poor families did the women and children work. Women still got the low-paying, dead-end jobs, and were less likely to work full time because of their duties at home. Related Ideas Mines Act of 1842 Bad Working Conditions Flip

7 1812 Flip The Luddites

8 The Luddites were a group of anti-industrialists, and followers of Ned Ludd, who attacked factories in northern England and later attacked new machines that they claimed were taking their jobs. Related Ideas Evolution of Power Sources Flip

9 1780 Flip Britain: The First Industrial Nation

10 Britain was called the workshop of the world. They produced 2/3 of the world’s coal, over ½ of the world’s iron and cotton, and in 1860, Britain produced 20% of the world’s output of industrial goods. Related Ideas Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution GNP The Great Exposition Flip

11 Flip Friedrich Engels

12 Friedrich Engels wrote The Communist Manifesto in collaboration with Karl Marx. He believed that workers of the Industrial Revolution that suffered from bad working conditions were deprived of their wages.Karl Marxbad working conditions Related Ideas David Ricardo Manchester School of Economics The “Dismal Science” Thomas Malthus Flip

13 Flip William Wordsworth

14 Wordsworth is an anti- industrialist and romantic poet who wrote about the simplicity of love and nature in his poem “Daffodils”. Related Ideas Romantic Response William Blake Flip

15 Flip New Medical Discoveries

16 New medical discoveries cured many diseases and led to an increase in population trends. This caused real wages to increase, thus allowing people to buy more products. The GNP increased as well as the standard of living. There was also a rise in the number of servants after families began to flaunt their wealth.population trends GNP Related Ideas David Ricardo Flip

17 Flip Eli Whitney

18 Eli Whitney created the cotton gin in It created a quicker method of separating the seed from the cotton fiber. This lead to an increased supply of cotton for factories. Related Ideas Evolution of Power Sources The Luddites William & John Cockerill Flip

19 Flip Bad Working Conditions

20 Factories were crowded and many diseases were spread during the industrial revolution. Women and children worked, long hours but were paid lower wages than men. The heavy machinery was dangerous and countless workers lost their lives. Related Ideas Saddler Committee Sexual Division of Labor Combination Acts 1799 Poor Law of 1834 Factory Act of 1833 Mines Act of 1842 Flip

21 Flip Population Trends

22 Rural areas were abandoned while people moved into industrial areas to find jobs. In 1850, new medical discoveries decreased the death rate. Between 1780 and 1851 England’s population increased by 12 million. Also, after 1850 diseases such as the plague disappeared from western society.new medical discoveries Related Ideas Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution Britain: The First Industrial Nation Flip

23 1832 Flip The Great Reform Bill of 1832

24 The Reform Bill of 1832 expanded British electorate and encouraged the middle class to participate in politics. The new industrial cities gained representation in the House of Commons. The electoral districts with few voters, also known “rotten boroughs,” were diminished. Related Ideas The Chartist Movement Karl Marx Friedrich Engles Flip

25 Flip Robert Owen

26 Robert Owen created a model industrial community in Scotland. Owen treated workers well by giving them high wages, shorter hours, education, and even housing. His workers did not experience the same bad working conditions as other workers did.bad working conditions Related Ideas Karl Marx The “Dismal Science” David Ricardo Thomas Malthus Flip

27 Flip Karl Marx

28 Karl Marx is a German writer who wrote The Communist Manifesto. He believed workers are taken advantage of and need to unite to end capitalism and participate in an inevitable worldwide revolution. He also thought of history as a continuous class struggle and worked in collaboration with Friedrich Engels. Friedrich Engels Related Ideas The Great Reform Bill of 1832 Bad Working Conditions The Chartist Movement Flip

29 1833 Flip Factory Act

30 The Sadler Committee worked to get the Factory Act passed to end the bad working conditions faced by children.Sadler Committee bad working conditions Related Ideas The Poor Law of 1834 Sexual Division of Labor Mines Act of 1842 Flip

31 1851 Flip The Great Exposition

32 The Great Exposition, held in the Crystal Palace, was a place where exhibitors could sell all of their British goods that were available as a result of industrialization and increased GNP. This proved Great Britain as the first industrial nation during the industrial revolution.GNPfirst industrial nation Related Ideas Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution Population Trends Corn Laws/ Repeal of Corn Laws Flip

33 1842 Flip Mines Act

34 The Ashley Committee worked to get the Mines Act passed to make ensure a sexual division of labor amongst workers. It was also created to end bad working conditionsAshley Committee sexual division of laborbad working conditions Related Ideas Factory Act Population Trends Thomas Malthus Flip

35 Picture Flip Sadler Committee Early 1830s

36 The Sadler Committee was a group that represented working children in factories. They exposed that children were beaten and abused in the factories and as a result, the Factory Act of 1833 was passed. Factory Act of 1833 Related Ides Mines Act of 1842 The Poor Law of 1834 Bad Working Conditions Flip

37 1799 Picture Flip Combination Acts

38 The Combination Acts of 1799 outlawed unions and strikes for workers. In 1824, Parliament repealed the Combination Acts and unions were tolerated. Related Ideas Bad Working Conditions The Great Reform Bill of 1832 Karl Marx Friedrich Engels David Ricardo Flip

39 Picture Flip William Blake

40 William Blake was a romantic poet that also wrote about the industrial revolution and its effects. He referred to factories as “satanic mills”. He also protested against the hard life of peasants, particularly the London poor. Flip Related Ideas Romantic Response The Luddites

41 Picture Flip John Constable

42 The romantic painter, John Constable, painted in response to the industrial revolution. His paintings consisted of “Wordsworthian” landscapes in which humans were at once with nature.Wordsworth Related Ideas Romantic Response The Luddites Flip

43 Picture Flip Thomas Malthus

44 Thomas Malthus was a laissez faire economist that shared beliefs with Adam Smith and David Ricardo. He argued that population would always outgrow the food supply in his Essay on the Principle of Population. He believed that the “positive checks” to control population growth are war, famine, and disease.laissez faire Adam Smith David Ricardo Related Ideas Manchester School of Economics Population Trends Flip

45 Picture Flip Joseph M.W. Turner

46 Joseph Turner was fascinated by nature and loved to depict its societal influence. He is the most notable romantic painter and shared similar beliefs with John Constable towards the Industrial Revolution. Related Ideas Romantic Art Romantic Literature William Wordsworth William Blake The Luddites Flip

47 Evolution of Power Sources

48 The constant need for energy and power as well as greater efficiency led to new inventions. Power sources evolved from horse and manpower to wood/charcoal, to coal, to steam power, and finally to iron. Related Ideas Thomas Savery & Thomas Newcomen George Stephenson Richard Arkwright Flip

49 Picture Flip David Ricardo

50 The wealthy English stockbroker, David Ricardo, was a laissez faire economist that shared beliefs with Adam Smith and Thomas Malthus. His key idea was the “iron law of wages” which stated that wages would always be just high enough to keep workers from starving.laissez faireAdam SmithThomas Malthus Related Ideas The “Dismal Science” Manchester School of Economics Bad Working Conditions Flip

51 Chartist Movement

52 A group of workers seeking universal male suffrage and an end to bad working conditions began the Chartist Movement. The workers rebelled against the government and factory owners. Their goal was to achieve political democracy and a repeal of the Corn Laws.bad working conditionsrepeal of the Corn Laws Related Ideas Karl Marx Friedrich Engels David Ricardo Laissez Faire Mercantilism

53 Picture Romantic response to industrialization

54 Romantic artists and writers responded to the Industrial Revolution by writing poems and painting about the bad working conditions, wages, and life in industrial cities. They also stressed the value of nature and shared ideas with the Luddites.bad working conditionsLuddites Related Ideas William Wordsworth William Blake John Constable Joseph M.W. Turner

55 Early 1840s Ashley Commission

56 The commission investigated the mines and found that women weren’t treated well and that there were unhealthy and bad working conditions. The Ashley Commission’s efforts resulted in the Mines Act of 1842.bad working conditionsMines Act of Related Ideas Sexual Division of Labor Factory Act of 1833 Poor Law of 1834

57 Flip John Kay

58 John Kay invented the flying shuttle in 1733 that dramatically increased the rate of cloth weaving. His invention increased cloth production and could also be used at home. This also increased the production rate of domestic workers that worked accordingly to the putting-out system. However, the flying shuttle produced a mass amount of cloth that caused workers to have a lack of thread supply. This problem would later be solved by James Hargreaves’s spinning-jenny. Related Ideas Evolution of Power Sources Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution Cottage Industry Flip

59 Flip James Hargreaves

60 In 1765, James Hargreaves was a typical cottage industry worker when he invented the spinning-Jenny. His new creation allowed workers to turn a handle that spun eight spindle fibers at once. Similarly with John Kay’s flying shuttle, the spinning-Jenny could also be used at home. Hargreaves’s spinning-Jenny solved the flying shuttle’s problem of causing insufficient amounts of thread.cottage industryJohn Kay’s Related Ideas Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution Evolution of Power Sources The Putting-Out System Flip

61 1650s – 1750s Flip Thomas Savery & Thomas Newcomen

62 Thomas Savery invented the first primitive steam engine in Seven years later in 1705, Newcomen invented another working steam engine. Both engines were extremely insufficient. They also contributed to the evolution of power sources by burning coal to produce steam. By the 1770s, Savery and Newcomen engines were operating in English and Scottish mines.evolution of power sources Related Ideas George Stephenson The Railroad Fritz Harkort James Watt Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution Flip

63 Flip James Watt

64 In 1769, James Watt invented the first true steam engine by adding a separate condenser to Thomas Newcomen’s steam engine. Ten years later, he invented an engine that turned a wheel. Watt contributed to the evolution of power sources by making factories independent of water power. Watt also created an effective vacuum. Thomas Newcomen’s evolution of power sources Related Ideas George Stephenson Fritz Harkort The Railroad Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution Britain: The First Industrial Nation Flip

65 1834 Flip Poor Law

66 The Poor Law was passed in 1834 by the electorate created by the Great Reform Bill of This law forced the destitute to enter into workhouses where living and working conditions were purposefully miserable. It was created to reduce the cost of looking after the poor and to take beggars off of England’s streets. Also, the poor were encouraged to work hard to support themselves.Great Reform Bill of 1832working conditions Related Ideas Factory Act of 1833 Mines Act of 1842 Combination Act of 1799 Sexual Division of Labor Sadler Committee Flip

67 Date Flip Fritz Harkort

68 Commonly referred to as the “James Watt of Germany,” Fritz Harkort built steam engines in the Ruhr Valley of Germany after serving in England as a Prussian army officer. Harkort witnessed the evolution of power sources in English industrialization and brought the British ideas to Germany. In 1832, after 16 years of building steam engines, Harkort was forced out of his company due to financial losses.James Wattevolution of power sources Related Ideas George Stephenson The Railroad Britain: The First Industrial Revolution James Watt Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution Flip

69 Date Flip George Stephenson

70 In 1825, George Stephenson built an effective locomotive called “The Rocket.” In 1830 the train sped down the Liverpool and Manchester Railway at an impressive sixteen miles-per hour. The railroad reduced the cost and uncertainty of shipping freight overland. Markets became larger and nation- wide due to the ease in transportation. The building and expansion of the railroad created many more jobs for the expanding population.The railroad Related Ideas Fritz Harkort James Watt Thomas Savery & Thomas Newcomen Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution Britain: The First Industrial Nation Population Trends Flip

71 Flip Abraham Darby

72 Abraham Darby created a way to smelt iron using coal. His new discover caused more productive machines made of iron to replace those made of wood. Darby’s inventions contributed to the evolution of power sources during the industrial revolution. evolution of power sources Related Ideas Henry Cort Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution Flip

73 Date Flip William Cockerill & John Cockerill

74 In 1799, William Cockerill and his sons built cotton-spinning equipment in Belgium. In 1817, after his father William Cockerill’s death, John Cockerill created a large industrial plant in southern Belgium. Many British workers worked at the plant and went on to create other businesses across Europe. The large amount of workers helped speed up the industrialization rate. Related Ideas John Kay James Hargreaves Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution Britain: The First Industrial Nation Population Trends Flip

75 1830 Flip The Railroad

76 The evolution of power sources during the Industrial Revolution lead to George Stephenson’s creation of “The Rocket.” The railroad benefited the newly increased population trends by providing more jobs.evolution of power sourcesGeorge Stephenson’spopulation trends Related Ideas Thomas Savery & Thomas Newcomen Friedrich List Fritz Harkort James Watt Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution Britain: The first Industrial Nation Flip

77 Flip Adam Smith

78 In 1776 Adam Smith wrote An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. He established two key ideas, one of which is commonly known as laissez- faire economics. The other idea stated that trade could enrich everyone.laissez- faire Related Ideas Manchester School of Economics Thomas Malthus Friedrich List Zollverein Mercantilism Flip

79 Date Flip Laissez-faire

80 Established by Adam Smith, laissez-faire economics called for no government regulated laws that control a nation’s economy. The “invisible hand” was the explanation for a self-controlled balance between supply and demand.Adam Smith Related Ideas Manchester School of Economics Mercantilism David Ricardo Corn Laws / Repeal of Corn Laws Flip

81 The “Dismal Science”

82 This phrase was applied to economics because economists such as Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo reached deeply depressing conclusions.Thomas Malthus David Ricardo Related Ideas Manchester School of Economics Population Trends Bad Working Conditions Flip

83 Henry Cort

84 In 1784, the Englishman Henry Cort developed the puddling furnace. This allowed pig iron to be refined in turn with coke (which is made from coal). Cort also contributed to the Industrial Revolution’s evolution of power sources by making heavy-duty rolling mills.evolution of power sources Related Ideas Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution Abraham Darby Flip

85 Richard Arkwright

86 Richard Arkwright invented the water frame that combined spindles and rollers to create a spinning machine that spun cloth. In 1770 he created the first modern factory that was powered by water, and thus contributing to the evolution of power sources.evolution of power sources. Related Ideas George Stephenson The Railroad Fritz Harkort James Watt Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution Flip

87 Flip Friedrich List

88 The German journalist Friedrich List was a dedicated nationalist that believed promoting industry was an act of defending one’s nation. In his National System of Political Economy in 1841, List supported the creation of a zollverein and denounced the British doctrine of free trade. His economic nationalism became popular in Europe. zollverein Related Ideas Manchester School of Economics Adam Smith Laissez-faire Mercantilism Flip

89 1834 Flip Zollverein

90 The zollverein of 1834 was better known as Prussia’s customs union. It abolished tariffs between German states. The idea of the zollverein was created by Friedrich List.Friedrich List. Related Ideas Mercantilism Laissez-faire Flip

91 Repealed in 1846 Flip Corn Laws / Repeal of the Corn Laws

92 The Corn Laws imposed high tariffs on imported grain to support domestic growers in Britain. In 1846, they were repealed. Manufacturers supported the repeal because lower food prices meant that they could pay their workers lower wages. Related Ideas Laissez-Faire Mercantilism Manchester School of Economics Flip

93 Flip Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution

94 After the Glorious Revolution of 1688 England achieved political stability and had greater religious toleration. The increased population trends allowed more workers and consumers to enter into the industry. The agricultural revolution and the cottage industry left room for technological advancements, along with the Enclosure Act. Overseas trade, transportation advancements, and more available resources also added to England’s success.population trends agricultural revolutioncottage industry Enclosure Act Related Ideas The Railroad Evolution of Power Sources GNP Britain: the First Industrial Nation Flip

95 1700s Flip Cottage Industry

96 The workers in the cottage industry worked from home. This industry consisted of much better working conditions than those in factories. Textiles were the main product being produced. Related Ideas The Putting-Out System Agricultural Revolution Enclosure Acts Evolution of Power Sources Bad Working Conditions Flip

97 Mid 1700s Flip Enclosure Act

98 The Enclosure Act dissolved the open-field system. Small- scale famers were forced into urban areas while larger farms increased in efficiency. The bigger farms also provided a low-paid workforce for the factories. Related Ideas Agricultural Revolution Cottage Industry The Putting-Out System Flip

99 18 th Century Flip Agricultural Revolution

100 The agricultural revolution introduced scientific farming. Crop rotation was developed as farmers grew different crops simultaneously. The Enclosure Act sealed off private farms and caused more efficient farming.Enclosure Act Related Ideas The Putting-Out System Cottage Industry Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution Flip

101 1700s Flip The Putting-Out System

102 “Protoindustrialization” is another word for the putting-out system. Workers worked from home but were not paid hourly. Instead, workers made more to sell more because they were paid by the quantity they produced. Related Ideas Evolution of Power Sources Reasons for England’s Industrial Revolution Cottage Industry Flip

103 19 th Century Flip Manchester School of Economics

104 The 19 th century free trade movement in England was describe as the “Manchester School.” The members of groups that wanted the repeal of the Corn Laws had began the movement. The Manchester School of Economics refers to classical liberal economists that believe in ideas such as laissez- faire. The “school” is said to be more political than economic because they question government authority more than economic stability.repeal of the Corn Lawslaissez- faire Related Ideas Adam Smith David Ricardo Mercantilism Flip

105 Mercantilism

106 The political and economical idea of mercantilism is the opposite of laissez-faire. A mercantilist economy only holds the nation’s wealth in gold reserves and is completely controlled by the government. Mercantilists believe that foreign trade would weaken domestic economies. laissez-faire Related Ideas Adam Smith David Ricardo Manchester School of Economics Flip

107 GNP

108 The industrial revolution caused a great increase in British manufactured goods and the gross national product (GNP) rose at constant prices. GNP is a comparison of population growth and the consumption of available goods. British people increased their income and wealth as the population trends also increased significantly. population trends Related Ideas Thomas Malthus Britain: the First Industrial Nation Flip


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