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Contemporary British Culture and Society Chapter 7 HOLIDAYS & TOURISM October, 2005 Xiao Huiyun.

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Presentation on theme: "Contemporary British Culture and Society Chapter 7 HOLIDAYS & TOURISM October, 2005 Xiao Huiyun."— Presentation transcript:

1 Contemporary British Culture and Society Chapter 7 HOLIDAYS & TOURISM October, 2005 Xiao Huiyun

2 Abstract In Chapter Seven we continue to look at the variety of ways in which people in Britain today spend their leisure time. We especially look at excursions away from home for a short or longer break. But we first look at the transport infrastructure of Great Britain — a network of airports, railway lines, motorways and other roads, which, together, connect up the even remotest parts of the country and help to make travel in Britain “ efficient, comfortable and affordable ”. We then examine holidays taken within Britain. There are a variety of things to do: for example, the seaside, areas of natural beauty and historical sites for long holidays or weekend breaks or day trips.

3 Abstract We also examine holidays made by British people abroad. We look at the travellers ’ selection of destination and their expectations from holidays abroad. In the second part of the chapter, we shift our attention to the business of tourism and tourist organizations. We consider the impact of travel agents and other organisations on tourism. The chapter ends with a personal account of a university student on how she managed to make a trip through Europe.

4 Focal Points All focal questions – handouts Conditions for travel excursions for a short or longer break holidays taken within Britain – landscape & heritage, national parks, National Trust, English heritage Holidays outside Britain Organization of tourism industry Why travel?

5 The world is like a book; and those who have not traveled have read only the first page." - St. Augustine

6 A 1 Introduction Conditions for travel British people who work full time have 4-5 weeks paid holiday Shorter working week Good travel conditions Means of transportation Discounts for coach & rail travel p118 SB

7 A 2 Day Trips & Weekend Breaks The seaside Black Pool Bingo halls. Amusement arcades, hotels, discos & restaurants, especially fish & chips Theme parks

8 A 2 Day Trips & Weekend breaks Roman Theme Park, Chester

9 Chester Cathedral

10 A 2 Day trips & Weekend Breaks Blackpool TowerBlackpool Illumination

11 Blackpool

12 Blackpool

13 A 2 Day Trips & Weekend Breaks Woodhall & LincolnGeorge Hotel, High Street, Lincoln

14 A 2 Day Trips & Weekend Breaks Woodhall Spa, 5th green Woodhall Spa, 3rd hole

15 A 2 Day Trips & Weekend Breaks The Golf HotelLincoln Castle

16 A 2 Day Trips & Weekend Break Lincoln CastleLincoln Cathedral

17 A 3 Holidays at Home Where do the British like to go? The seaside Historical and cultural sites e.g. Shakespeare ’ s birth place, castles, cathedrals, etc. The City of London – The square mile Accommodation Bed & Breakfast, camp sites, youth hostels, hotels

18 Victoria Station

19 The City of London St. James Park

20 The City of London Greater London Authority Headquarters

21 Hyde Park Corner

22 City of London Bank of England

23 The City of London The Bank of England

24 The City of London Piccadilly Circus

25 The City of London St. Paul ’ s Cathedral

26 The City of London Westminster Abby

27 The City of London Millenium Bridge

28 The City of London Trafalgar Square, London Harrod ’ s London

29 Shakespeare Shakespeare ’ s birth place (23 April 1564) The old grammar school he attended

30 Shakespeare Schoolroom in which he studied The curriculum was mainly based on Latin, studying such authors as Virgil and Ovid. The curriculum would also have included some Greek, probably Homer. Today this building is part of the King Edward VI Grammar School

31 Shakespeare Here is the desk where Shakespeare's teacher sat. This teacher passed on his own love of Ovid, Virgil and Homer to young William, and thereby laid the foundation for Shakespeare's great work

32 Shakespeare This is the spot where he lies. Shakespeare died in Stratford on 23 April 1616, and now lies in Holy Trinity Church Stratford. "O, such another sleep, that I might see But such another man,.. As this I dream'd of".


34 Warwick Castle

35 Bath Roman baths in Bath Cathedral, Bath

36 Dover CastleStonehenge

37 A3 Holidays at Home Landscape & Heritage -- tourist attraction Varied beauty of landscape in a compact geographical area Long history visible in well preserved buildings(450,000) monuments and National parks The National Trust 1895 -- largest landowners, functions & contributions Biodiversity Action Plan -- for further conservation of plants & wildlife

38 NATIONAL PARKS British Definition of a National Park “An extensive area of beautiful & relatively wild country in which, for the nation’s benefit and by appropriate national decision and action (I.e. government policy) the characteristic landscape beauty is strictly preserved, access and facilities for public open-air enjoyment are amply provided, wildlife and buildings and places of architectural and historic interest are suitably protected, while established farming use is effectively maintained.” (National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949)

39 NATIONAL PARKS: International Definition A relatively large area,(1) where one or several ecosystems are not materially altered by human use and settlement; (2) where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific, educational & recreactive interest or which contains a natural landscape of great beauty; (3) where the government of the country has taken steps to prevent or eliminate, as soon, as possible, use or settlement in the whole area and to enforce the respect of ecological, geomorphological aesthetic features, which have led to its establishment; (4) where visitors are allowed to enter under special conditions.” (United Nations,1977)


41 UK - Cotswolds From Stratford to Bath and Oxford The Cotswolds stretch from Stratford upon Avon in the north to Bath in the south. From Gloucester in the west to Oxford in the east, the rolling hills are full of story book English villages. And we have added Shakespeare at Stratford upon Avon, the dreaming spires and colleges at Oxford and the Georgian city of Bath.

42 UK - Cotswolds Anyone in search of the true English Countryside need look no further than the Cotswolds, considered by many to be amongst the most beautiful areas in England. Two things above all give the Cotswolds their special warmth and richness; the soft natural limestone and the wealth of the wool trade in days gone by which has left a heritage of superb buildings.

43 THE COTSWOLDS The cars parked along the street today don't do anything to enhance the appearance of the town

44 THE COTSWOLDS Heart of England Upper SlaughterLower Slaughter

45 The Cotswolds Oxford

46 A 3 Holidays at Home Village, Cotswolds, south-west England

47 A 3 Holidays at Home Isle of AvalonVillage

48 A 3 Holidays at Home North Yorkshire Dales, England

49 A 3 Holidays at Home Lake District

50 Crummock Water from Rannerdale Knotts Aira Force

51 'Rydal - Rydal Hall Gardens ‘ Lake district Rydal HallThe gardens

52 Daffodils

53 The Lake District Daffodils William Wordsworth I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o'er vales and hills, When all at once I saw a crowd, A host, of golden daffodils; Beside the lake, beneath the trees, Fluttering and dancing in the breeze. Continuous as the stars that shine And twinkle on the Milky Way, They stretched in never-ending line Along the margin of the bay: Ten thousand saw I at a glance, Tossing their heads in a sprightly dance

54 The Lake District The waves beside them danced, but they Out-did the sparkling waves in glee: A poet could not but be gay, In such a jocund company: I gazed --- and gazed --- but little thought What wealth the show to me had brought: For oft, when on my couch I lie In vacant or in pensive mood, They flash upon that inward eye Which is the bliss of solitude; And then my heart with pleasure fills, And dances with the daffodils

55 黄 水 仙黄 水 仙黄 水 仙黄 水 仙 我独自游荡,象朵孤云 高高地飞越峡谷和山颠: 突然我望见密密的一群-- 是一大片金黄色的水仙; 它们在那湖边的树荫里, 在阵阵微风中舞姿飘逸。 象银河的繁星连绵不断-- 辉映着夜空,时暗时亮; 水仙就沿着湖湾的岸边 黄灿灿的一片伸向前方; 我一眼望去便看见万千-- 一边欢舞一边把头频点。

56 黄 水 仙黄 水 仙黄 水 仙黄 水 仙 水波在旁欢舞,但水仙 比闪亮的水波舞得更欢; 有这样快活的朋友作伴, 诗人的心儿被快活充满! 我看了又看,却难领悟 这景象给了我什么财富: 因为,有时我心绪茫然 或冥思苦想地躺在榻上, 这水仙常在我眼前闪现, 让我把孤寂中的福安家-- 这时我的心被欢乐充满, 并随着那水仙起舞翩翩。

57 William Wordsworth 1770 -- 1850 Cockermouth – Wordsworth House

58 Wordsworth Memorial Opposite Wordsworth House is this bronze bust of the poet, unveiled on 7 April 1970, the bicentenary of William's birth, by his great-great- grandson. As part of the same celebrations, 27000 daffodils were planted on open spaces and approaches to the town. Wordsworth House William

59 Hawkshead - Old Grammar School The old grammar school The Old Grammar School in Hawkshead was founded in 1585 by the Archbishop of York, Edwin Sandys. The ground floor classroom retains many old desks covered in carving done by the boys, including the poet William Wordsworth and his brother John. Upstairs in the headmaster's study and a classroom containing an exhibition relating to the history of the school, the founder and William WordsworthHawksheadWilliam Wordsworth

60 The Wordsworth Museum Grasmere - Dove Cottage Here Wordsworth wrote much of his poetry, and his sister Dorothy kept her famous journals In 1802 after her marriage to William, Mary Hutchinson arrived. Their three oldest children were born at Dove Cottage - John in 1803, Dora in 1804 and Thomas in 1806. The Wordsworths had many visitors to Dove Cottage - Walter Scott, Thomas De Quincey, Charles and Mary Lamb, Robert Southey and most of all Samuel Taylor Coleridge

61 William Wordsworth Rydal Mount, in the heart of the Lake District, commands glorious views of Lake Windermere, Rydal Water and the surrounding fells. It was the home of William Wordsworth from 1813 to 1850. The house, which now belongs to the descendants of the poet, retains a lived in family atmosphere, and has changed little since Wordsworth and his family came to live here. They rented the house from Lady le Fleming, of nearby Rydal Hall. William Wordsworth Rydal Hall

62 William Wordsworth Wordsworth was a keen landscape gardener, and the four acre garden remains much as he designed it. It consists of rare shrubs, fell-side terraces, lawns, rock pools and an ancient mound. The mound dates from the 9th Century, when it was used as a site for a Beacon Fire to warn of coming Border Raiders. In season the daffodils, bluebells and rhododendrons produce a spectacular display of colour. From the summerhouse is a stunning view over Rydal Water.Rydal Water

63 William Wordsworth The Old Kitchen The Wordsworths at Home – family Drama in the garden

64 William Wordsworth Rydal - Dora's Field After his daughter Dora died in 1847, William went down to a small field between the house and the main road, and together with his wife, sister and gardener, planted hundreds of daffodils as a memorial to Dora. Dora's Field now belongs to the National Trust.Dora's FieldNational Trust

65 William Wordsworth Rydal - Dora's Field Daffodils

66 St Oswald's Church Here he lies with his beloved William Wordsworth planted eight of the yew trees in the churchyard, and one of them marks the grave of him and his wife Mary. Nearby are buried his sister Dorothy, his children Dora, William, Thomas and Catherine, Mary's sister Sara Hutchinson, and other members of the family. There is also the grave of Hartley Coleridge, eldest son of Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

67 William Wordsworth Tombstones for the Wordsworths St Oswald's Church

68 A 3 Holidays at Home Belfast, N. Ireland

69 Wales

70 National Parks, Wales

71 A 3 Holidays at Home Palace of Holyrood, Edinburgh

72 A 3 Holidays at Home Prince Street Garden, Edinburgh

73 National Park Scotland National Park Scotland

74 The Scottish Highlands

75 Scottish Highlands

76 Scottish Highlands Scottish Highlands Bluebells of Scotland Scottish Thistles Flower of Scotland

77 Heritage of Scotland Robert Burns was Scotland's greatest poet and many would say that he was the world's greatest ever poet. Burns was born at Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland on 25 January 1759 and died in Dumfries on 21 July 1796. In less than 37 years of life he accomplished more than most people do in a normal lifetime Some of his work, such as Auld Lang Syne is among the most familiar and best-loved songs and poems in the English language

78 Scotland My Love is like a Red, Red Rose Burns 0, my love is like a red, red rose, that's newly sprung in June. 0, my love is like a melody, that's sweetly play'd in tune. As fair thou art, my bonnie lass, so deep in love am I, And I will love thee still, my dear, till a' the seas gang dry. Till a' the seas gang dry, my dear, and the rocks melt wi' the sun! And I will love thee still, my dear, while the sands of life shall run. And fare thee well, my only love! And fare thee well awhile! And I will come again, my love. Tho it were ten thousand mile!

79 一朵红红的玫瑰 罗伯特 · 彭斯 啊,我的爱人象红红的玫瑰, 在六月里苞放; 啊,我的爱人象一支乐曲, 乐声美妙、悠扬。 你那么美,漂亮的姑娘; 我爱你那么深切; 我会永远爱你,亲爱的, 一直到四海涸竭. 直到四海涸竭,亲爱的, 直到太阳把岩石消融! 我会永远爱你,亲爱的, 只要生命无穷。 再见吧,我唯一的爱人, 再见吧,小别片刻; 我会回来的,我的爱人, 即使万里相隔 !

80 Scotland BURNS NIGHT It is celebrated on January, 25th, the birthday of Robert Burns In the evening people eat typical Scottish food, such as “ Haggis ” (a special kind of sausage in a sheep ’ s stomach) and drink whisky while bagpipes music is played and some of Burn ’ s poems are read aloud.

81 Robert Burns Burns CottageBurns Monument

82 Scotland Tossing the Cabar, Highland Games, May -- Sept. Scottish Castle

83 Tossing the Cabar

84 A 4 Holidays Abroad Popular places abroad Culture -- Vienna, Venice, Florence Athens Scenic beauty and Adventure

85 Key Causes of Tourism Growth in UK Develop of transport (in travelling time makes places nearer). Railways, roads and motorways and air transport. More time off work. Paid holidays. Higher disposable income. Wider horizons. More old OAP ’ S. Package Deals.

86 VisitBritain: Marketing English Tourism On 1 April 2003 the English Tourism Council is merging with the British Tourist Authority to form VisitBritain, the new organisation that will market England within Britain and Britain to the rest of the world. The creation of VisitBritain follows a review by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, resulting in the decision to combine the resources and strengths of ETC and BTA

87 Kirkby Stephen, Lake District Ravenstonedale, Kirkby Stephen 19th Century barn conversion for 4/6

88 19th Century barn conversion Situated one mile from the delightful small village of Ravenstonedale, this spacious barn conversion provides excellent accommodation all year round

89 The Cotswolds Cottage

90 The Cotswolds Cottage

91 A 5 Organization of the Tourism Industry Package holidays : transport, accommodation, transfer Self-planned holidays Travel agent – agents for clients & companies they make booking with The Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA) Travel Agency of National Union of Students see p124 for more information

92 A 6 Conclusion Nowadays, in some Western developed countries, it ’ s becoming more and more difficult in everyday life to achieve, let alone maintain, a balance over a long period of time. On the one hand, people are inundated with stimuli in the form of rush, noise and stress. On the other hand, many things are monotonous, unstimulating and one-sided: housing, the environment, the journey to work, work itself, even everyday leisure.

93 A6 Conclusion Other key words are uneventfulness, sedentariness, lack of contact and mobility. In this case, it is not an exaggeration to say that everyday life is the sum of negative aspects of existence. Dirt — noise — work — rush — school — trouble — pollution. All this is part of everyday life. Thus, the possibility of leaving, going on a trip, is obviously something very important. To a certain extent, everyday life is bearable in the long run only if there is a chance to get away; otherwise people lose their balance and fall ill. Free time, and above all, travel are there to add some colour to this bare landscape. They are the vehicle for man ’ s restoration — his re-creation; they heal body and soul and bring vitality and new meaning to life.

94 A 6 Conclusion Travel is recuperation and regeneration. — Travel restores bodily and mental strength used up in everyday life, at work, school and in the family. It is a recharging of batteries. Travel is compensation and social integration. — Travel compensates us for what we miss in everyday life. What people want is to find a compensation for the one-sided demands of their working life: they want to do and experience something that is different from the everyday routine, they seek diversion from the daily monotony, they long for fun and amusement.

95 A 6 Conclusion Travel is escape. — The theory sees the modern industrial world as a prison from which its inmates want to break out. Working life being in fact ugly, the environment mostly unpleasant, monotonous and polluted, a compulsive and irrepressible urge to get out of it all emerges. Travel is communication. — Establishing contact with people, in contrast to the anonymity and alienation of everyday life, is an important aim of holiday-makers. They want to spend more time with their family and close friends as well as make new friends and acquaintances. All this is much easier during the holidays, since the atmosphere is more casual than at home.

96 Travel broadens the mind. — “ Broaden one ’ s horizons, do something for one ’ s culture and education ”, “ Experience other countries, see the world, meet local people ”, or “ Experience something entirely different, see new thing ”.

97 Travel is freedom and self- determination. — Freedom is, in the final analysis, the ability to make one ’ s own decisions about a course of action. Travel liberates people from obligations. They can break loose from the ‘ must ’, from the order and regulation which oppress us in everyday life. They can finally do what they want and what they think is right. They can also do nothing. They are free, unrestrained, their own masters.

98 Travel is self-realization. — Holidays, says this theory, provide an opportunity to confront the self, to test one ’ s soul, to come to terms with oneself, to measure oneself against others and discover one ’ s own abilities. Travel is happiness. — In a recent study for tourism, human happiness is described as a harmonious state, trouble and tension-free, combined with a certain degree of self-realization. The probability of experiencing this state of happiness is supposed to be much greater during holidays than in everyday life.

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