2What is Poetry?Poetry has been described as “the best words in their best order.”~ Samuel Taylor Coleridge“Poetry is like making a joke. If you get one word wrong at the end of a joke, you’ve lost the whole thing.”~ W.S. Merwin“Poetry is truth in its Sunday clothes.”~ Joseph Roux“Poetry is thoughts that breathe, and words that burn.”~ Thomas Gray
3How is Poetry Organized? Poetry is as much about form as it is about language and sound.Form – refers to a poem’s structure, or the way the words are arranged on the page.Lines – all poems are made of a series of lines.Stanzas – lines are grouped into stanzas, like sentences are in a paragraph.Each stanza plays an important part in communicating the overall message of a poem.
4How do Poems Rhyme? Rhyme – enhances the musical quality of poetry. Like music, language has a rhythm. In poetry, the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in each line is what creates the rhythm.Rhyme – enhances the musical quality of poetry.End Rhyme – when the rhyme occurs at the ends of linesInternal Rhyme – when the rhyme occurs within the same line
5Examples of Internal Rhyme: “The Witch” by Jack Prelutsky:She comes by night, in fearsome flight,In garments black as pitch,The queen of doom upon her broom,The wild and wicked witch,“The Raven” by Edgar Allen Poe:Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary, While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,“The Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner” by Samuel Taylor ColeridgeThe fair breeze blew, the white foam flew, The furrow followed free; We were the first that ever burst Into that silent sea.
6Examples of End Rhyme: “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost: Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,And sorry I could not travel bothAnd be one traveler, long I stoodAnd looked down one as far as I couldTo where it bent in the undergrowth;“The Sower” by Victor Hugo:Peaceful and cool, the twilight greyDraws a dim curtain o’er the day,While in my cottage-porch I lurkAnd watch the last lone hour of work.
7Does all poetry have to rhyme? -- NO. Free Verse Poetry – does NOT follow the guidelines of regular pattern, rhythm, or rhyme.“Luxury” by Nikki Giovanni:i suppose livingin a materialistic societyluxuryto some would be havingmore than what you need
8Poetic Sound Devices: Sound Devices are used to: “There are only three things that a poem must reach: the eye, the ear, and the heart or the mind. It is the most important of all to reach the heart of the reader. And the surest way to reach the heart is through the ear.” ~ Robert FrostSound Devices are used to:communicate meaningadd emphasisaid memorycreate a musical quality and patternSound Devices Include:RepetitionAlliterationAssonanceConsonance
9Poetic Sound Devices: REPETITION Repetition – repeating a sound, word, phrase, or line for emphasis or unity“We Never Change” by Chris Martin:I wanna live life, never be cruel, I wanna live life, be good to you. I wanna fly, never come down, And live my life, And have friends around.“Everything is Everything” by Lauryn Hill:Everything is everything What is meant to be, will be After winter, must come spring Change, it comes eventually
10Poetic Sound Devices: ALLITERATION Alliteration – is when several words very near each other begin with the same consonant sound“Nothing Gold Can Stay” by Robert Frost:Nature’s first green is gold, Her hardest hue to hold. Her early leaf’s a flower; But only so an hour.Or you may remember:Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers How many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?
11Poetic Sound Devices: Assonance & Consonance Assonance – is the repetition of VOWEL sounds in words that don’t end with the same consonant.“Annabel Lee” by Edgar Allen Poe:And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side Of my darling, my darling, my life and my bride.“I made my way to the lake.”Consonance – is the repetition of CONSONANT sounds in the middle or at the ends of words.I don’t like English class,I like the people in here though,I go with the flow; so Ms. FinchWon’t throw me out for being a grinch.
12Why is Diction So Important? Diction – means the choice of words a poet usesDiction is especially important to poetry.Poetry is known for its concise and exact use of language“Oranges” by Gary SotoThe first time I walked With a girl, I was twelve, Cold, and weighted down With two oranges in my jacket. December. Frost cracking Beneath my steps, my breath Before me, then gone, As I walked toward Her house,
13How Important is Imagery to a Poem? Imagery is the MOST important element of any poem.Imagery is the words and phrases that appeal to one or more of the five senses.Her house, the one whose Porch light burned yellow Night and day, in any weather. A dog barked at me, until She came out pulling At her gloves, face bright With rouge. I smiled, Touched her shoulder, and led Her down the street,
14Figurative Language Figurative language is language that communicates meanings beyond the literal meanings of wordswords are often used to:symbolize or emphasize ideascreate effectsevoke emotionsSome common types of figurative language are:SimileMetaphorPersonificationHyperboleOnomatopoeia
15Figurative Language: Simile A simile compares two unlike things using the words “like” or “as.”The witches eyes were as black as coal.During the storm, the wind tore through branches like a power saw.My life is like an open book.Life is like a box of chocolates.When I walked out of school on the last day, I felt free as a bird.
16Figurative Language: Metaphor A metaphor makes a comparison by saying that one thing IS another different thing.A metaphor:does not use “like” or “as”allows us to use fewer wordsforces the reader to find the similarityThe simplest form of a simile is:“The [first thing] is a [second thing].”Ex: “Her house is a prison.”
17Metaphor Examples:Her eyes were sparkly beacons of bright light, expressing her hope for their futures.The tree trunks were matchsticks as they snapped in the hurricane-force winds.Life is a journey.The assignment was a breeze.
18Figurative Language: Personification Personification gives human qualities to an object, animal, or idea.Personification makes an object or idea do something that usually is only done by people.Examples: The flames of the fire danced in the wind.The brown grass was begging for water.Any trust I had for him walked right out the door.The angry storm brought heavy rain and lightning.The party died as soon as she left.
19Who is the Speaker?The speaker is the voice that describes the character and/or the action in the poem.In a story we say “the narrator”; in poetry, we say “the speaker.”