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Essential Components of Traditional Village Tank Systems P.B. Dharmasena Paper presented at the Seminar on Cascade Irrigation Systems for Rural Sustainability.

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Presentation on theme: "Essential Components of Traditional Village Tank Systems P.B. Dharmasena Paper presented at the Seminar on Cascade Irrigation Systems for Rural Sustainability."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essential Components of Traditional Village Tank Systems P.B. Dharmasena Paper presented at the Seminar on Cascade Irrigation Systems for Rural Sustainability held on 9 th December 2010 at SLFI, Colombo, organized by Plan Sri Lanka.

2 Interceptor

3 Interceptor (Kattakaduwa) Three land phases (water hole, marshy land and dry upland) Three land phases (water hole, marshy land and dry upland) Reduce tank seepage Reduce tank seepage Prevent entering Na, Mg, Fe into the paddy land Prevent entering Na, Mg, Fe into the paddy land Safeguard the tank bund Safeguard the tank bund A common village garden and agro-forestry system – medicine, fuel wood, timber, fencing materials, farm and household materials, food, fruit, vegetable, fodder A common village garden and agro-forestry system – medicine, fuel wood, timber, fencing materials, farm and household materials, food, fruit, vegetable, fodder Raw materials for cottage industry Raw materials for cottage industry Plant diversity (77 species – 13 species specific to kattakaduwa Plant diversity (77 species – 13 species specific to kattakaduwa

4 Thal, puwak, milla, teak Pan, kohila, wadakaha, kankun Gotukola, mukunuwenna, kiriala, Vewel Patabeli, kumbuk, kohomba, divul, mee, amba Three land phases of Kattakaduwa Wetakeya

5 Tree species Home garden 148 Forest 76 Interceptor

6 Plant species in the interceptor Function/use No. of species Medicine Fuel wood Timber Fencing materials Farm and domestic tools FoodFruitsVegetablesFodder

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8 Four phases of the traditional tank Madakaluwa (dead storage) Jalagilma (deep phase) Waangilma (High flood phase) Wev thaula (shallow phase)

9 Four phases of the traditional tank Waangilma (High flood phase) Wev thaula (shallow phase) Jalagilma (deep phase) Madakaluwa (dead storage)

10 Four phases of the traditional tank Waangilma (High flood phase) Wev thaula (shallow phase) Jalagilma (deep phase) Madakaluwa (dead storage)

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13 PARTIAL DESILTING CONCEPT Reduces water losses Makes upstream area free of water Reduces salinity in the upstream area Allows to re-establish gasgommana and perana Avails water during dry period Increases cropping intensity

14 Area (ha) Elevation (m) In the past At present Proposed FSL Sill level PARTIAL DESILTING CONCEPT

15 Old tank bed New tank bed Tank bund Interceptor Removed sediment Natural streams Catchment area PARTIAL DESILTING CONCEPT

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19 Thisbambe – Buffer zone of hamlet, resting place of buffalo, protection from malaria and wild animals, sanitary activities, nutrient source to paddy field Thisbambe – Buffer zone of hamlet, resting place of buffalo, protection from malaria and wild animals, sanitary activities, nutrient source to paddy field

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21 Kiul-ela Kiul-ela Common drainage of paddy tract, disposal of saline water from kattakaduwa, bio- diversity, habitats for predators

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23 Iswetiya – Iswetiya – Soil erosion control, prevent sedimentation, acts as a temporary water pond

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25 Godawala – Godawala – Sediment trap, drinking water for cattle and wild animals

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27 Gasgommana and Peraana Wind barrier – reduces evaporation Reduces temperature Habitat of some species Fish breeding points Territory between man and wild animals Reduce sedimentation

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