3 Setting the SceneIn the 1700s, small farms covered most of England. Wealthy landowners were buying all the small farms. They could make many improvements in farming techniques with their money, but many people were left without jobs. This is known as the “agricultural revolution”
4 Setting the SceneTechnology was changing how goods were madeSmall-scale production by hand at home large-scale production by machine in a factoryIndustrialization – switch to machine production of goods
5 Activity Read the article “Before the Industrial Revolution” Answer the 10 “Challenges” questionsBe prepared to be called on randomly!
6 Why Did it Begin in England? Large populationNatural resourcesExpanding economyPolitical stability
8 Activity Read the article “Great Britain: First to Industrialize” Using this information, answer the two questions on the back on a separate sheet of paperThese will be collected so make sure to put your name on your answer sheet!
9 Factors of Production: Land Water power & coal = fuel for machinesIron ore = construct machines, tools, and buildingsRivers = inland transportationHarbors = shipping
10 Factors of Production: Labor Unemployed farmers needed new jobsPeople were willing to move to cities to work in factories
11 Factors of Production: Capital Capital = wealthBusiness people wanted to invest moneyBanks gave out loans to businesses
13 Textiles Change FirstCottage industry: people created goods by hand in their own homesMaking cloth had been a cottage industryWith new technology, cloth is made faster and cheaper in factories
14 Activity: The Textile Industry Read the article and answer the accompanying questionsBe prepared to randomly be called on!
15 Activity: The Life of a Textile Worker Read the two personal accounts of life as a textile workerAnswer the four questions on the bottom
16 Improvements in Transportation James Watt’s Steam EngineCheap, convenient powerWater TransportationSteamboatsCanal systemsRoad TransportationLarge rocks on bottom and small on top – helped drain water
17 Railroads Revolutionize Life Cheaper way to transport goodsCreated jobs for railroad workers and minersMade travel easier – people could travel for workSteam Engine
18 Comparing Viewpoints Activity In this activity, you will read two different viewpoints on the impact that industrialization had on societyOn a separate sheet of paper, answer the three questions on the bottom
19 1850: Population Living in Cities Urban GrowthUrbanization: the building of cities and the movement of people to cities1850: Population Living in Cities
21 Activity: Why England?In this activity, we will be analyzing a number of sources to answer the question “Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in England”For each of the sources, there is an accompanying question. Read through each and answer the question.
22 Living Conditions in Cities Not enough housing, schools, or policeStreets had no drains, garbage piled upWhole families lived in dark, dirty one room “apartments”Disease was widespread
23 Working Conditions 14 hour work days, 6 days a week Dirty, poorly lit factories led to injuriesChildren as young as 6 work in factoriesMany coal miners killed by coal dustIn addition, they were subject to various kinds of discipline:The closing of factory gates to late workersFines for tardinessDismissal for drunkennessPublic censure for poor quality workmanshipBeatings for non-submissiveness
24 Activity“Hazardous Duty – Factory Work During the Industrial Revolution”Use the reading to answer the multiple choice questions
26 Class Tensions GrowMiddle Class = factory owners, skilled workers, professionals, business people, wealthy farmersNew social classHad most of the moneyLooked down on by the upper classWorking class = factory workers, laborersPoorest groupDuring the century, factory workers underwent a process of proletarianization (i.e., they lost control of the means of productionFactory owners provided the financial capital to construct the factory, to purchase the machinery, and to secure the raw materials.The factory workers merely exchanged their labor for wages.
27 Reforming Society Workers started getting involved in politics Created labor unionsUnions represented all the workers in a particular tradeEngaged in collective bargaining with employersIf employers didn’t agree, workers would strike (refuse to work)
28 Creating UnionsSkilled workers created the first unions – harder to replace in workforceWas a very tough processEngland – unions/going on strike illegalEventually governments look into the awful conditionsMost obvious were child labor problems
29 Effects of the Revolution Creates jobs, enriches nation, encourages technological progressIncreases production of goods, raises standard of living, gives people hope of improving their livesEducation expands, clothing becomes cheaper, diet and housing improve
30 Protecting the Revolution Great Britain did not want to share the secrets of industrializationTo protect these secrets, they FORBADE engineers, toolmakers, and mechanics from leaving the country
32 Writing an EditorialCongratulations! You’ve been promoted to Editor for the London TimesUsing the information that you gathered during the jigsaw, you will be writing a editorial arguing whether or not the Industrial Revolution improved life in England and how to fix some of the existing problems
36 Industrial Revolution Project Let’s play tic-tac-toe!For this project you get to choose what aspects you would like to focus on!You must pick THREE topics – these can go across, up and down, or diagonally
39 Mercantilism: The Old Theory Main idea: MONEY = POWERImport (buy from another country) as little as possibleExport (sell to another country) as much as possibleNeeded colonies to make this system workHad been the most popular economyGreat Britain, Spain, & France were major powers that used this economic theoryA nation’s power was directly related to its wealthColonies=important because they provided cheap raw materials, paid taxes to the home country, and were a market for the finished goods
40 ACTIVITY Read the information sheet about your theory Individually list what you think are the most important parts of the theoryWith the other students who have your theory answer these questions (you’re turning these in!):How would you summarize your theory?What are advantages to your theory?What might be some disadvantages to your theory?After about minutes, we will jigsaw!
41 Make sure to put your name on your paper! Your OpinionOn a sheet on paper, using your notes from today, answer the question below:Which theory do you think sounds best or worst? Which kind would you want to use if you could choose? WHY?Make sure to put your name on your paper!IT IS BEING COLLECTED!Today not very many countries use one theory or another, unless it uses capitalism.Socialism and communism today, often do not control all of the means of production or they produce goods for worldwide market, such as China.China is open to foreign investment and has moved from a planned socialist economy to what they term socialist market economy
43 Capitalism (Theory A)Individuals have the right to own private property and businessesGovernment should protect these rightsGov’t should stay out of the economy (laissez-faire)Owner can choose what to make, how much to make, and what price to sell atAdam Smith and the EnlightenmentIndividuals have the right to own their own property, which means they can own & operate their own businessesBecause the government protects these rights and does not control property or businesses, this economic theory can also be called laissez-faire economics.
44 Capitalism (Theory A) Economy based on competition Prices often lower Example: when only AT&T carried the iPhone, they could charge whatever they wantedWhen Verizon began carrying the iPhone, AT&T had to drop their pricesItems probably of better qualityWhy buy something that isn’t made well if you can get a better item somewhere else?
45 Capitalism (Theory A) Based on supply and demand Make products based on what and how much buyers wantGov’t might have to step in if a company creates a monopolyToo much control over one industry = less competition
46 Sound Familiar?Think back to the Enlightenment and Adam Smith!
48 Socialism (Theory B) Cooperation instead of competition Government controls all means of productionPicks what to make and how much to makeSupply and demand doesn’t existGovt controlling all the means of production is the basic principle of theory bWhat do we know about promises?
49 Socialism (Theory B)A government using socialism might promise the people:Economic equalityNo more povertyDecent housesGood working conditionsThese things help those previous promises
51 ACTIVITYIn your notebook, compare the similarities and differences between capitalism and socialism
52 Communism (Theory C) Many similarities with socialism Equality of the peopleNot a big difference between rich and poorThe people should control the means of productionGovernment technically owns everything, but the people run the gov’t, not politiciansTheory B will take too long to implementWhy would wealthy people be a big problem to changing an economy?What does the economy focus on? What do wealthy people have a lot of?
53 Communism (Theory C) Cooperation not competition People’s government decides what goods to produce and how muchNo supply and demandThe major difference between Theory B and Theory C isTHEORY B BELIEVES THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD CONTROL ALL OF THE MEANS OF PRODUCTIONTHEORY C BELIEVES THE PEOPLE SHOULD REVOLT, PUT THEMSELVES IN POWER/GOVERNMENT, THEN TAKE CONTROL OF ALL THE MEANS OF PRODUCTION
54 ACTIVITY Capitalism vs. Communism Identifying Characteristics Review each of the characteristics listed on the sheetPlace each on in the proper economic category
56 Communism (Theory C) Karl Marx- German journalist Fredrich Engels – German, father owns textile millThe Communist ManifestoSociety is divided into warring classesCapitalism helps the “haves” (employers/bourgeoisie)Hurts the “have-nots” (workers/proletariat)Predict workers will overthrow owners