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18 th c. European Expansion. 18 th c. political history? absolutism & constitutionalism continue enlightened absolutism (ca. 1750-1790) French Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "18 th c. European Expansion. 18 th c. political history? absolutism & constitutionalism continue enlightened absolutism (ca. 1750-1790) French Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 18 th c. European Expansion

2 18 th c. political history? absolutism & constitutionalism continue enlightened absolutism (ca. 1750-1790) French Revolution (1789)

3 18 th c. intellectual history? Enlightenment (1690-1780)

4 This presentation will address 18 th c. European ECONOMIC HISTORY. Essential Questions: How did Europe expand in the 18 th century? … internal growth? (rising food production, population boom, expansion of industry) … external growth? (global trade, empire building)


6 Objectives 1.Compare and contrast farming methods and the supply of food before and after the Agricultural Revolution. 2.Explain the factors that caused the Low Countries and England to adopt the new methods of the Agricultural Revolution first.

7 80% of W. Europeans even more in E. Europe 17 th c. Economy: Agrarian

8 What it looked like: – open fields, cut into strips for each family – no fences – common lands for pasturing animals Agriculture before 1650: The Open-Field System Fallow Wheat/ Beans Fallow Wheat/ Beans Fallow Wheat/ Beans Common Land

9 Problems: – soil exhaustion  fields lie fallow – low output + periods of famine Agriculture before 1650: The Open-Field System Famine Foods Grass and Bark………. Dandelions………………. Chestnuts………………….

10 What: elimination of the fallow How: Agricultural Revolution (ca 1650-1850) (1) crop rotation(2) enclosure

11 Consequences: – MUCH more food – rise of market-oriented estate agriculture – proletarianization (landless peasants) Agricultural Revolution (ca 1650-1850) Between 1600 and 1900, England’s wheat output tripled. Overall, by 1870 English farmers were producing 300% more food than in 1700 with just 14% more labor!

12 Low Countries 1 st – why: – densely populated – growth of urban areas England 2 nd – students of the Dutch Leaders: Low Countries & England

13 Cornelius Vermuyden (Dutch) – drainage Jethro Tull (English) – seed drill, horses for plowing, selective breeding Dutch & English Innovators Seed Drill


15 Objective Account for the dramatic population increase in Europe during the 18 th century.

16 Population Patterns up to 1700 irregular cyclical pattern of slow growth factors that held down growth: – famine – disease – war



19 18 th c. Population Explosion Why: decline in mortality … – famine: new canals and roads enabled food transport; new foods (potato) – disease: bubonic plague disappeared; improved sanitation – war: less destructive


21 Objectives 1.Discuss the development of cottage industry and its impact on rural life and economy. 2.Describe the features of the guild system, explain how it evolved in the 18 th century, and explain why the guild system eventually was replaced.

22 Cottage Industry manufacturing with hand tools in peasant homes

23 Cottage Industry: The Putting-Out System What: merchant capitalist “put out” raw materials to cottage workers, who returned finished products to the merchant Competitive advantages (over guilds): – low wages – no regulation = experimentation + variety of goods

24 Cottage Industry 1 st in: England, textile industry family enterprise spinners can’t keep up with weavers  “spinsters” conflict b/t workers & merchant-capitalists erratic pace

25 Urban Guilds elitist & monopolistic: – restricted membership: men, nepotism, costly – exclusive rights to produce certain goods – access to limited raw materials Guild flags, etching from 1815.

26 Urban Guilds not open to experimentation? 18 th c.  openness to women (ex. dressmaking) lost power, late 18 th c. – mid-19 th c. (FR / rise of free market)

27 “Industrious Revolution” social/econ Δs of late 17 th -early 18 th c. – wage work –  leisure time new pattern = foundation for IR (1780) Debate over consequences … life better or worse for: – the poor? – women?


29 Objectives 1.Explain how Britain became the dominant European power in the colonial world. 2.Describe the development of slavery and its impact on the economy in the Americas. 3.Explain how Spain recovered in the 18 th century after its 17 th -century decline. 4.Describe the hierarchy of Spanish colonial society. 5.Identify European colonies in Asia. 6.Explain Adam Smith’s economic theory, and contrast it with mercantilism.

30 18 th c. Commercial Leader: BRITAIN!!!

31 Britain did have rivals: Dutch French Spanish So how did Britain take the lead? Success in war – economic & military.

32 Wars 1.Navigation Acts (1651-1663) 2.Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652-1674) 3.War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713) 4.War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) 5.Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)

33 1. Navigation Acts (1651-1663) econ. warfare: – GB imports must be carried on GB ships (or on ships of country producing the goods) – GB colonies must ship goods on GB (or US) ships + buy goods from GB Outcome: beat out Dutch

34 2. Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652-1674) 3 wars Outcome: not much Δ, but coupled w/ Nav. Acts, Dutch commerce  Dutch colony of New Amsterdam. Britain seized it and renamed it “New York.”

35 3. War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713) Cause: threat of French/Spanish union France vs. Grand Alliance (GB, Dutch, Austria, Prussia)

36 3. War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713) Grand Alliance won! Peace of Utrecht: – Fr/Sp could not be united – France lost Amer. colonies to GB – Spain lost land to Austria & gives control of slave trade to GB

37 4. War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Cause: Prussia (Fred the Great) took Silesia from Austria (MT)

38 4. War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Came to include Anglo-French conflicts in India & N. America Outcome: – Prussian victory – no land Δ in N. America GB’s King George II at Battle of Dettingen – defeated the French. GB fought on Austria’s side.

39 5. Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) Cause: MT wanted Silesia back France vs. Britain over colonies

40 5. Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) Indecisive in Europe British victory in colonies Treaty of Paris: – France & Spain lost land in N. Amer. & India to GB

41 Theme: Land and Trade Monopolization Outcome: Britain realized goal of monopolizing a vast trading and colonial empire



44 Atlantic Slave Trade (18 th c. height)

45 Atlantic Slave Trade plantation agriculture: sugar, coffee, tobacco, rice, cotton 1700: GB becomes leader 1770s-80s: GB abolition campaign 1807: Parli abolished GB slave trade Middle Passage

46 Spanish Revival After its height in the 16 th c., and a drastic fall in the 17 th, Spain came back in the 18 th ! Causes: – better leadership: Philip V (r. 1700-1746) – reforming ministers

47 Spanish Revival Signs of revival: colonies benefit! – better defense – expansion (ex. Louisiana, CA) – silver mining recovers – new class of wealthy Creoles

48 Spanish Colonial Society Creole: Spanish blood, born in America mestizo: mixed Spanish/Indian debt peonage: – 17 th c. labor system – serfdom – owner keeps Indians in bondage by advancing pay


50 Portugal (16 th c.) Outposts in Indian Ocean trading world

51 Dutch Republic (17 th c.) Indonesia

52 France Key light blue = 1 st empire of 1600s-1700s dark blue = 2 nd empire, after 1830 India

53 Britain (India, 18 th c.)


55 Different Economic Systems Mercantilism 17 th -18 th c. gov’t. regulation goal: ↑ gold reserves … exports > imports Capitalism late 18 th c. forward gov’t. stays out of economy

56 Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (1776) capitalism / free market / free trade / economic liberalism / laissez-faire invisible hand 3 duties of gov’t.: 1.defense (military) 2.civil order (police, courts) 3.public works

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