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The Rise of Industrialism Transparency Notes Pre-Industrial Society Farming in the Middle Ages – Subsistence Farming – One of three fields left fallow.

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Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Industrialism Transparency Notes Pre-Industrial Society Farming in the Middle Ages – Subsistence Farming – One of three fields left fallow."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Rise of Industrialism Transparency Notes

3 Pre-Industrial Society Farming in the Middle Ages – Subsistence Farming – One of three fields left fallow (empty) to regain fertility Peasants shared strips in each section – Common pastures for grazing animals No fences = ruined crops Spread disease faster – Disadvantages Inefficient land use Farmers didn’t experiment with new farming methods – Forces for Change Population growing – more food needed – Britain nearly doubles during 18 th Century French blockade – no corn – more food needed – Search for new farming methods Assessment = Create Visual Flow Chart

4 The Agricultural Revolution Enclosure movement (17 th & 18 th Century) – Wealthy landlords fenced in common pastures Raised sheep for wool Experimented with new farming methods – Villagers lost common lands = poorer farmers Crop rotation (Scientific Farming) – Fields depleted of nutrients by one crop could be replenished by planting different crops Clover, alfalfa, pod-bearing Less waste of land; better production Discoveries – Seed drill = more effective & efficient planting – New crops Indian corn (maize) = 20x more seeds Potato – grows anywhere in large quantities – High nutrition

5 Planting of correct crops which increases soil fertility Healthier livestock = more manure (fertilizer) More fertile fields = bigger crops/more food Better diets/healthier populations; population grows More workers = more food needed

6 Cottage Industry & Early Capitalism Merchants supply rural workers with raw cotton or wool 1st set of workers combs/cleans fibers for spinning Merchants deliver combed fibers to 2 nd workers for weaving into cloth Merchants deliver cloth to 3 rd workers for coloring Merchant sells finished cloth to consumers for profit; keeps some & reinvests some in repeating the process

7 Cottage Industry & Early Capitalism Cottage Industry = early form of Capitalism – Merchants reaction to buyers’ demands for manufactured products – Capitalism = An economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately or corporately owned and development is proportionate to the accumulation and reinvestment of profits gained in a free market Advantages: No expensive equipment No time clock Income offset poor harvests Workers control amount of work Merchants earn large profits Disadvantages: Homes became crowded & dirtier Young children worked as well

8 The Textile / Factory System Textile Industry Invented – Cottage Industry couldn’t keep up with demand for textiles – New Inventions: Spinning jenny, spinning mule & water frame improved spinning.

9 Power Loom sped up weaving Cotton gin (Eli Whitney) separated seeds from cotton

10 “Necessity is the mother of invention” Each invention improved upon a previous model Machines become larger, faster, expensive and require more than human power to operate Require factories to house them Factories located near power sources (water, coal, iron) Workers ‘GO’ to work rather than work coming to them

11 Effects of the Factory System Prices on mass produced ‘machine goods’ were lower than ‘hand-produced goods’ People become factory ‘workers’ rather than skilled craftsmen as they are trained in one specific repetitive task Workers lose autonomy as owners control wages, hours & working conditions England experiences huge economic growth in the 1800’s In 1815 = 250,000 hand-loom weavers In 1860 = 3,000 hand-loom weavers

12 The Steam Engine

13 Developed in response to increasing need for power – Early factories used horses, oxen or water power Limited power Restricted factories to being built near rivers – Development credited to James Watt – Allows machines to run off steam produced by burning coal as fuel More factories, more locations, more machines Improves mining by removing water from flooded mines – Increases precious metals available for industry

14 Energy: Iron & Coal The need for iron/steel (railways, tools, machines) greatly increases during the late 1700’s. – Iron production requires expensive & limited raw materials (timber & charcoal) – Discovery of coal and its variant, coke, as replacements help meet demands Plentiful sources of coal in Britain allow it to produce more iron than all other countries combined Coal powers Britain's huge navy

15 Transportation Need for Better Transportation – Increased production increases need to transport goods quickly & cheaply – Pre-industrial society used horses, mules & dirt roads Inventions – Stone and eventually asphalt roads (1830=20K miles) – Canals – Railroads starting in 1829 (the Rocket; George Stephenson) Effects of the Railroad – Expand rapidly through Britain – Cheaper, faster & more reliable transportation increases production & profits – Railways ‘fuel’ other industries: coal, iron, steel, steam engines & manufacturing

16 Why the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain? Geography – Available raw materials in abundance (coal & iron) – Isolated from continental wars which depletes resources & causes disruption Government – Unified culture and traditions (nationalism) – Mobile population / few internal restrictions Encourages trade & travel – Government sponsorship of transportation improvements Social factors / Capital ($$) – Less rigid social hierarchy – Private investment capital to jump start businesses

17 Why the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain? Colonial Empire – Provides a cheap source of raw materials – Provides a ‘closed market’ for British manufactured goods First to Industrialize – No other countries competing for manufactured goods Continental Europe was still recovering from the Napoleonic Era – Disruption prevents movement to industrialize – Britain develops a monopoly on technology Legislation keeps trade secrets from leaving the country

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