3Life before the Industrial Revolution After the Revolutions in America, France, and Latin America changed the way government worked, the Industrial Revolution changed the way people did work.This begs the question “If this changed the way people worked…How did they work before the Industrial Revolution?”
4Industrialization fundamentally changed how goods were produced
5Industrial Revolution Period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times.It began in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spread throughout Western Europe, North America, Japan, and eventually the rest of the world.
7Why Great Britain Why did the most important economic change since the Agricultural revolution begin on this Island?
8Why Britain – One More Time Europe’s location on the Atlantic OceanThe geographical distribution of coal, iron and timberEuropean demographic changesUrbanizationImproved agricultural productivityLegal protection of private propertyAn abundance of rivers and canalsAccess to foreign resourcesThe accumulation of capital
9Industrial Revolution Essentials Origin in England, because of its natural resources like coal, iron ore, and the invention and improvement of the steam engineSpread to Europe and the United StatesRole of cotton textile, iron, and steel industriesRelationship to the British Enclosure MovementRise of the factory system and demise of cottage industriesRising economic powers that wanted to control raw materials and markets throughout the world
16Enter the Factory Production is centralized into one building Industrial Factory – Chief means of organizing labor around the new machines
17Impacts of the Industrial Revolution on industrialized countries Population increaseIncreased standards of living for many, though not allImproved transportationUrbanizationEnvironmental pollutionIncreased educationDissatisfaction of working class with working conditionsGrowth of the middle class
18The nature of work in the factory system Family-based cottage industries displaced by the factory systemHarsh working conditions with men competing with women and children for wagesChild labor that kept costs of production low and profits highOwners of mines and factories who exercised considerable control over the lives of their laborersThe development of the factory system concentrated labor in a single location and led to an increasing degree of specialization of labor
19Second Industrial Revolution As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the United States, Russia, and JapanThe “second Industrial revolution” led to new methods in the production of steel, chemicals, electricity and precision machinery during the second half of the nineteenth century.
20New patterns of global trade and production developed and further integrated the global economy as industrialists sought raw materials and new markets for the increasing amount and array of goods produced in their factories
21The need for raw materials for the factories and increased food supplies for the growing population in urban centers led to the growth of export economies around the world that specialized in mass producing single natural resourcesCottonRubberPalm oilSugarWheatMeatGuanoMetalsMineralsThe profits from these raw materials were used to purchase finished goods
22Industrial Impact Abroad The rapid development of industrial production contributed to the decline of economically productive, agriculturally based economiesTextile industry in IndiaThe rapid increases in productivity caused by industrial production encouraged industrialized states to seek out new consumer marketsBritish and French attempts to "open up" Chinese markets during the nineteenth century for their finished goods.
23Need…The need for specialized and limited metals for industrial production, as well as the global demand for gold, silver and diamonds as forms of wealth, led to the development of extensive mining centersCopper in MexicoGold and diamonds in South Africa
24To facilitate investments at all levels of industrial production, financiers developed and expanded various financial institutions
25CapitalismThe ideological inspiration for economic changes lies in the development of capitalism and classical liberalism associated with Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill
27Large-scale Transnational Businesses The global nature of trade and production contributed to the proliferation of large-scale transnational businessesUnited Fruit Company,The HSBC- Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation
28There were major developments in transportation and communication
29Developments in Transportation and Communication RailroadsSteamshipsTelegraphsCanals
30The development and spread of global capitalism led to a variety of responses
33Impact of the Industrial Revolution on slavery The cotton gin increased demand for slave labor on American plantations.The United States and Britain outlawed the slave trade and then slavery.
34Social effects and Reforms of the Industrial Revolution Women and children entering the workplace as cheap laborIntroduction of reforms to end child laborExpansion of public educationState pensions and public health (Germany)Increased male suffrage (Britain)Women’s increased demands for suffrage
36The rise of labor unions Encouraged worker-organized strikes to increase wages and improve working conditionsLobbied for laws to improve the lives of workers, including women and childrenWanted worker rights and collective bargaining between labor and management
38Capitalism Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations Role of market competition and entrepreneurial abilitiesImpact on standard of living and the growth of the middle classDissatisfaction with poor working conditions and the unequal distribution of wealth in society
39In industrialized states, many workers organized themselves to improve working conditions, limit hours, and gain higher wages, while others opposed capitalist exploitation of workers by promoting alternative visions
40Utopian SocialismExemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, and Robert OwenInspired Karl Marx and other early socialistsGenerally don't feel class struggle or political revolutions are necessary to implement their ideas; that people of all classes might voluntarily adopt their plan for society if it were presented convincingly
41Socialism and communism Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto (written with Friedrich Engels) and Das CapitalResponse to the injustices of capitalismImportance of redistribution of wealth to the communists
42Other ResponsesIn Qing China and the Ottoman Empire, some members of the government resisted economic change and attempted to maintain preindustrial forms of economic productionChina’s Self-Strengthening Movement
43In a small number of states, governments promoted their own state-sponsored visions of industrializationEconomic reforms of Meiji JapanDevelopments of factories and railroads in Czarist RussiaMuhammad Ali’s development of cotton textile industry in Egypt
44The ways in which people organized themselves into societies also underwent significant transformations in industrialized states due to the fundamental restructuring of the global economy
45New social class, including the middle class and the industrial working class developed Family dynamics, gender roles, and demographics changed in response to urbanizationRapid urbanization that accompanied global capitalism often led to unsanitary conditions as well as to new forms of communityTenement housing
46Final ThoughtsIndustrialization fundamentally altered the production of goods around the world.It not only changed how goods were produced and consumed, as well as what was considered a “good,” but it also had far-reaching effects on the global economy, social relations, and culture.Although it is common to speak of an “Industrial Revolution,” the process of industrialization was a gradual one that unfolded over the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, eventually becoming global.