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MICROBIAL SAFETY OF SELECTED VALUE-ADDED DAIRY PRODUCTS IN THE COTTAGE INDUSTRY IN KAMPALA AND ITS ENVIRONS ROBERT ALEX ISABIRYE 1 RESEARCH OFFICER – ANIMAL.

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Presentation on theme: "MICROBIAL SAFETY OF SELECTED VALUE-ADDED DAIRY PRODUCTS IN THE COTTAGE INDUSTRY IN KAMPALA AND ITS ENVIRONS ROBERT ALEX ISABIRYE 1 RESEARCH OFFICER – ANIMAL."— Presentation transcript:

1 MICROBIAL SAFETY OF SELECTED VALUE-ADDED DAIRY PRODUCTS IN THE COTTAGE INDUSTRY IN KAMPALA AND ITS ENVIRONS ROBERT ALEX ISABIRYE 1 RESEARCH OFFICER – ANIMAL HEALTH SCIENTIST NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH ORGANIZATION (NARO) ASSOC. PROF GEORGE WILLIAM NASINYAMA 2 * COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE ANIMAL RESOURCES AND BIOSECURITY –MAKERERE UNIVERSITY *Corresponding author

2 INTRODUCTION Current world population is about 7 billion A high population growth rate globally with more than 700 million people added to world population by 2020 At 3.2% per year, Uganda has one of world’s fastest growing populations Current Ugandan population is estimated at 34 million and needs proteins WHO/FAO recommended per capita consumption of milk and milk products is 200 litres/capita/year, but Uganda’s average is only 50 litres Global demand for dairy products is estimated to grow by 25% by 2020

3 INTRODUCTION (CONT’D) This population needs to be fed on safe and nutritious foods in adequate amounts Consequently the demand for livestock products has increased drastically especially in developing countries This has in turn created significant implications for economic, institutional and policy frameworks throughout the whole consumption/production value chain And in turn prompting the need for food at each level of the value chain to conform with safety requirements Hence this study

4 JUSTIFICATION Value addition to raw milk upgrades it to a high value product and increases its shelf-life e.g. yoghurt, ice cream, ghee. This increases farmers’ incomes; and improves food security (MDG 1) Nutritious foods are very essential in reducing child mortality, malnutrition and improving immunity against disease (MDGs 4 and 6). Pregnant women need nutritious foods for normal pregnancy and safe child birth (MDG 5). Hence value addition of milk contributes to Millennium Development Goals 1, 4, 5 and 6

5 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY To provide a better understanding of the safety of locally produced value added dairy products in Kampala

6 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES To describe small holder production / processing practices for locally produced value added dairy products in Kampala To identify risky practices associated with value added dairy products in Kampala To determine the microbial safety of the popular value added dairy products consumed in Kampala namely: ice cream, bongo and yoghurt.

7 MATERIALS AND METHODS Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were employed Qualitative: FGDs for processors of value added livestock dairy products in Kampala Quantitative: Administering structured questionnaires to 224 processors of value added dairy products Laboratory Analyses: 75 Yoghurt; 70 bongo; and 60 ice-cream samples for TPC, E. coli, Staph. aureus and Salmonella spp Sample size of study dairy products calculated using standard survey formula (Martin et al., 1987)

8 RESULTS QUALITATIVE APPROACH – FGDs FGDs had 32 participants i.e. 18 men; 14 women Ice cream producers employed between 3 and 5 people; more for yoghurt between 4 and 7 Key challenges to production and marketing of dairy VALPs as lack of standardized production criteria; little technical knowledge in processing and and high production costs of electricity tariffs, costly machinery

9 RESULTS (CONT’D) QUANTITATIVE APPROACH – FIELD SURVEY Types of value added dairy products processed in Kampala VariableFrequencyPercent Ice cream914.3 Butter11.5 Yoghurt1219 Ghee Bongo2235 Cheese812.6 Total

10 RESULTS (CONT’D) QUANTITATIVE APPROACH – FIELD SURVEY ItemDescriptionProportion Source (n=224)Kampala Central47.8% Nakawa Division38.8% Kawempe Division12.5% Gender Male69.6% Female30.4% Knowledge about guidelines in dairy processing Yes74.1% No25.9%

11 RESULTS (CONT’D) QUANTITATIVE APPROACH – LAB ANALYSES Samples that did not comply with Codex and UNBS limits DIVISIONnTPCE. coliStaphSalmonella PRODUCTION STAGE CENTRAL5530 (72.8%)33 (60%)23 (42%)0 (0%) NAKAWA4539 (87%)1 (2%)16 (36%)0(0%) TOTAL10069 (69%)34 (34%)39(39%)0 (0%) MARKETING STAGE CENTRAL6058 (97%)35 (58%)33 (55%)0 (%) NAKAWA4545 (100%)38 (84%)33 (73%)0 (0%) TOTAL (98%)73 (70%)60 (57%)0 (0%)

12 RESULTS (CONT’D) QUANTITATIVE APPROACH – LAB ANALYSES Ice-cream samples: 82, 62 and 55%; while for bongo those below standard were 84, 27 and 24 % No salmonella spp was recovered in any samples analyzed There were significant (p-value < 0.05) differences in contamination levels between production and marketing stages, the latter having significantly higher microbial counts, Hence chances of contamination within marketing chain. Whereas many similar studies have been carried out e.g. Otto and Nasinyama (2006), few have investigated both production and marketing levels of value added dairy products

13 Mean microbial counts by product and location LocationProductMean microbial counts TPCE. coliS. aureusSalmonella Central Yoghurt2.0 x x x Ice-cream7.4 x x x Bongo7.4 x x x Nakawa Yoghurt2.0 x x x Ice-cream7.4 x x x Bongo7.4 x x x

14 DISCUSSION Risky practices may have contributed to the high contamination levels Contamination levels above those recommended by UNBS and Codex mainly due to E. coli and S. aureus may have come as a result of too much manual involvement because of inadequate equipment and unskilled manpower The public health significance of pathogens detected in the samples could not be ignored since many disease outbreaks due to E. coli and/or S. aureus have so far been recorded in history

15 CONCLUSIONS The high microbial load, coupled with isolation of S. aureus and E. coli signifies that the value added dairy products produced in the cottage industry in Kampala pose a hazard and a potential source of food borne pathogens Risky practices can hamper food quality/safety management in small holder VALPs enterprises Small holder enterprises have inadequate manpower and expertise

16 RECOMMENDATIONS Since the industry is largely informal, there is need for: Strategic interventions by local, national and international organizations to support the small scale processors Training and formation of collective processors’ groups to improve quality of production

17 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to acknowledge the following for contributing towards success of the study: Prof. George Nasinyama, the academic supervisor Makerere University for financial support towards this study through the NORAD Institutional Project Business community processing value-added dairy products in Kampala and surrounding areas Mr. Musisi, and other staff Makerere University COVAB Microbiology Lab Mr. Moses Makoha and Mr. James Wasike assistance with for data collection

18 THE END THANK YOU FOR LISTENING


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