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The Industrial Revolution. A Major Change agrarian handmade goods rural industrial machine-made goods urban.

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Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution. A Major Change agrarian handmade goods rural industrial machine-made goods urban."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Industrial Revolution

2 A Major Change agrarian handmade goods rural industrial machine-made goods urban

3 Revolutionary Changes in… patterns of work social class structure standard of living int’l. balance of power

4 Where? When? What? Britain 1780s textiles

5 Timeline – Events around IR s Agricultural Revolution Growth of Atlantic economy Pop. Boom Cottage industry + Atlantic slave trade IR Begins

6 Timeline – Events around IR s Agricultural Revolution Growth of Atlantic economy Pop. Boom Cottage industry + Atlantic slave trade IR Begins

7 Timeline – the IR s IR begins in Britain IR reaches the Continent 1820s Labor Movement/Legislation Standard of living  after 1850

8 Timeline – the IR IR begins in Britain s IR reaches the Continent 1820s Labor Movement/Legislation Standard of living  after 1850

9 Why Britain? 1.large market (domestic & colonial) 2.rivers & canals – easy transport 3.natural resources – iron & coal 4.large labor force 5.agricultural revolution  foodfood $   $ to buy manufactured goods

10

11 Canals

12 Why Britain? 6.strong central bank 7.well-developed credit markets 8.stable government 9.laissez-faire economy 10.no domestic tariffs

13 Textile Industry 1 st ! spinning & weaving inventions textile factories cottage industry could not meet growing demand

14 New Raw Material: Cotton

15 Textile Industry – Spinning James Hargreaves – Spinning Jenny (1765) 6-24 spindles; hand-powered

16 Textile Industry – Spinning Richard Arkwright – Water Frame (ca. 1770) 100s of spindles; water-powered  factories

17 Textile Industry – Spinning Samuel Crompton – Spinning Mule (1779) factories

18 Textile Industry – Weaving Edmund Cartwright – Power Loom (1785)

19 Consequences of Δs in Textile Industry 1.cheaper cotton goods 2.weavers’ wages  until ca and stayed good until ca poor factory working conditions 4.child labor 5.industrial dominance  1831 – 22% of GB’s industrial production

20 The Energy Problem pre-industrial sources (human & animal) = not enough power shortage of WOOD – due to Ag. Rev. (forests into fields) – important for heat & iron-making

21 The Energy Solution STEAM ENGINE – Thomas Savery (1698) – Thomas Newcomen (1705) **JAMES WATT (1769)** Raw material: COAL Watt’s Engine

22 Importance of the Steam Engine The steam engine was “the Industrial Revolution’s most fundamental advance in technology. For the first time in history, humanity had … almost unlimited power at its disposal.” (McKay 731) Uses: mills, draining mines, **iron industry**, steamships, railroads

23 Iron Industry Boom steam engine burned coke (coal derivative) rather than charcoal (wood derivative) Henry Cort’s puddling furnace (1780s) “Iron became the cheap, basic, indispensable building block of the economy.” (McKay 732) Puddlers at work

24 Railroads George Stephenson – Rocket (1830) 16 mph!!!

25 Railroads Factors enabling RRs: – iron  strong rails – steam engine  locomotive

26 Consequences of the Railroad 1.↓ shipping cost & uncertainty 2.larger markets  larger factories  cheaper goods (economies of scale) 3.expanded labor market (huge demand for unskilled labor to build RRs) 4.change in social values: new obsession with power & speed

27 Shorter Journeys

28 “The Great Land Serpent”

29 Monet’s Gare St. Lazare (1877)

30 Turner’s Rain, Steam and Speed (1844)

31 Crystal Palace Exhibition, 1851 Celebrating Britain’s industrial dominance, in London.

32 Crystal Palace – Interior Exhibits

33 Britain: “Workshop of the World” Produced: – 2/3 of the world’s coal – ½ of the world’s iron and cotton – 20% of the world’s industrial goods in 1860 (vs. 2% in 1750) Huge growth, : – GNP x4 – pop. x2+ (9 to 21 mil.)

34 THE IR IN CONTINENTAL EUROPE

35 Per Capita Levels of Industrialization, GB Belgium US France Germany A-H Italy Russia China India Note: All entries are based on an index of 100, equal to the per capita level of industrialization in Great Britain in 1900 … how much industrial product was available, on average, to each person in a given country in a given year.

36 Data Analysis – all countries close together 2.by 1800 – GB gained big lead 3.nat’l. variations in timing & extent –Belgium 1 st 4.Western nations (+ Japan)  industrial levels vs. non-Western nations 

37 Why did the Continent lag until 1815? Battle of Waterloo

38 The Continent in 1815 CHALLENGES 1.GB goods already dominant 2.tech. too complicated 3.pricey to invest 4.factory labor shortage ADVANTAGES 1.strong tradition of cottage industry 2.people: merchant capitalist class + urban artisans 3.borrow existing tech. 4.strong independent gov’ts.

39 Agents of Continental Industrialization 1.skilled workers 2.entrepreneurs 3.governments – protective tariffs – funded RRs 4.banks – limited liability – Crédit Mobilier

40 Economic Nationalism Friedrich List, National System of Political Economy (1841) anti-free trade pro-protective tariff “An individual, in promoting his own interest, may injure the public interest; a nation, in promoting the general welfare, may check the interest of a part of its members.”

41 The “Second Industrial Revolution” ( ) steel chemicals oil electricity planes, cars, subs telephone, telegraph movies, radio


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