Presentation on theme: "Steffen M. Noe, Ahto Kangur, Urmas Hõrrak, Marko Kaasik SMEAR Estonia - Current state and further development."— Presentation transcript:
Steffen M. Noe, Ahto Kangur, Urmas Hõrrak, Marko Kaasik SMEAR Estonia - Current state and further development.
SMEAR Estonia The SMEAR Estonia station The SMEAR Estonia station is a delocalised infrastructure in South-East Estonia.
XII Ökoloogiakonverents 2013 Tartu 18. Oktoober 2013 The start 2008 in Liispõllu
XII Ökoloogiakonverents 2013 Tartu 18. Oktoober 2013 The SMEAR Estonia station in August 2013 picture by Joel Kuusk
SMEAR Estonia Planned Equipment at Järvselja mast September 2013 130m 110m 90m 70m 50m 40m 30m 15m 5m Main Cottage T, inlet A, T, inlet T, inlet EC, A, T, inlet A, T, inlet T, inlet The inlets draw air down to the main cottage where gas analysers measure the concentrations of greenhouse gases (CO 2, CO, CH 4 ), water vapour, reactive trace gases (O 3, NOx, SO 2 ). The Eddy covariance systems (EC) are used to measure direct fluxes of CO 2, H 2 O and CH 4. Air ion and aerosol size distributions are measured in the vicinity of the 130m mast. Small ecosystem towers (like Liispõllu) in the vicinity of the mast are used to measure photosynthesis and BVOC emissions. Automatic soil chambers measure the CO 2 and H 2 O fluxes over the soil surfaces.
In cooperation with Levira AS Installation to be completed by October 31 Sonic anemometers Metek uSonic-3 CLASS A Temperature – humidity Sensors HygroClip HC2-S3 With ventilated shield SMEAR Estonia Equipment at the Valgjärve TV-mast
Expected output: energy and momentum fluxes in atmospheric boundary layer – input for meteorological & atmospheric-chemistry transport models Possible further development: gas analyser(s) Output temperature and wind graphs from Valgjärve: http://meteo.physic.ut.ee/valgjarve http://meteo.physic.ut.ee/valgjarve http://meteo.physic.ut.ee/valgjarve/dev (temporary installation at 9 m height yet) SMEAR Estonia Equipment at the Valgjärve TV-mast
SMEAR Estonia Data measured at the SMEAR Estonia station so far 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Eddy covariance, soil fluxes, O 3, NOx, BVOC, air ions, aerosols, PM1, 2.5, 10 only some months Eddy covariance 20 m and 2 m height Soil respiration (not in winter) Root biomass experiments Aboveground biomass (leaf litter) volatile organics profiles Daily dynamic of volatile organics CO 2, CO, H 2 O concentrations methane concentrations ozone concentrations NOx concentrations SO 2 conc. Air ions and aerosols
XII Ökoloogiakonverents 2013 Tartu 18. Oktoober 2013 GHG concentrations (Picarro G2401, Liispõllu 2012)
SMEAR Estonia CO 2 fluxes (EC measurements, daily dynamics)
SMEAR Estonia Trace gas concentrations (daily dynamic)
SMEAR Estonia Spruce branch BVOC emissions in autumn 2012
SMEAR Estonia Modelled aboveground biomass flux from litterfall data r 2 = 0.8, P < 0.08 r 2 = 0.81, P < 0.0001 Gap-filling using parameter estimations Litterfall data was collected monthly since 2011 at three different sites in Järvselja. Gap filled yearly litter mass flux accounts to 7.3 t ha -1 year -1 for the gaussian approach that covers more of the measured data. The polynomial approach yields to 5.7 t ha -1 year -1.
SMEAR Estonia Aerosols daily dynamic Example of a typical ” Banana ” -shaped nucleation event and the dynamic of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) growth. Oxidation products from the reactive trace gases lead to condensation on already existing clusters. That process is driven by sun light!
SMEAR Estonia Aerosol formation events measured in Spring 2013
SMEAR Estonia Nucleation event days Järvselja 2013Hyytiälä 2009 Nieminen et al. 2010, 14 years of observation of atmospheric particle formation in Hyytiälä, Finland: in Report Series in Aerosol Sciences 109, 2010
SMEAR Estonia Publications related to SMEAR Estonia so far… 2011 2012 2014
Acknowledgements The study was supported by the EU Regional Development Fundation, Environmental Conservation and Environmental Technology R&D Programme project BioAtmos (3.2.0802.11-0043). Info: http://smear.emu.ee SMEAR Estonia