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Industrial Revolution One more time. Pop quiz What are causes of Industrial Revolution in Europe and in England?

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Presentation on theme: "Industrial Revolution One more time. Pop quiz What are causes of Industrial Revolution in Europe and in England?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Industrial Revolution One more time

2 Pop quiz What are causes of Industrial Revolution in Europe and in England?

3 commercial rev  great eco growth in Eur age of exploration rise of capitalism investment of surplus profit into new ventures

4 pop growth pop of Eur approx. 188m in 1800 and at near 275m by to 1850 pop in England had more than doubled, reaching 20m stimulated demand and created larger markets

5 Protoindustrialization ("cottage industry" or "domestic system" or "putting-out system) * - Merchant-capitalist raw materials (e.g. raw wool) to rural family who finished or semi-finished product, sent it back to merch for payment - Cottage workers usually paid by piece work - Merchants sell for profit - Wool cloth most important

6 Sci Rev new inventions, ways of thinking applied to industry

7 Ag Rev displaced people from countryside ready labor force in growing cities feed growing urban pop

8 flying shuttle (1733, John Kay): cut manpower needs on looms in half spinning jenny (1764, James Hargreaves): mechanized spinning wheel -- Hand operated; simple and inexpensive -- Early models had 6-24 spindles Usually worked by women

9 - water frame (1769, Richard Arkwright): several hundred spindles on machine powered by water wheel required large specialized factories that employed as many as 1,000 workers reduced amount of human labor needed spinning mule (1779): combined spinning jenny and water frame

10 steam engine‘s application to textile production was perhaps key event of IR (required that production take place in factories)

11 - By 1800, production of cotton thread was England‘s most important industry - By 1850, England produced more than 1/2 of the world‘s cotton cloth - Cotton goods became much cheaper, enjoyed by all classes

12 The use of coal to power steam engines was one of marks of Ind Rev (by 1850, Eng produced 2/3rds of world's coal)

13 iron industry (puddling) radically transformed by steam power Rising supplies of coal boosted iron production manufacture of machinery and materials Henry Cort 1780s developed puddling furnace also developed steam-powered rolling mills to shape finished iron into any shape or form By 1850 England >1/2 of world‘s iron

14 why England? abundant capital enclosure movement had generated a pool of capital through commerical ag, notably wool abundant labor (urbanization) thanks to enclosure movement intellectual climate - laissez faire econ, interest in and support of science geographical advantages - rivers, harbors, water power

15 had not suffered devastation of continental warfare British navy, merchant fleet large No part of island was very far from sea water transport still safest and cheapest way to transport bulky goods of early industrial revolution standard of living higher than in most other places, so more disposable income to purchase goods

16 central bank, well-developed credit market and stock market colonial empire and markets - access to raw materials such as cotton from India less rigid class system opened the door for talented commoners to enter world of commerce and banking persons with money could rise socially and frequently found themselves sitting in Parliament mineral resources - iron and coal

17 continent slow to begin due to: Napoleonic wars hindered industrial growth of continental Euro lacked transport as advanced as GB's France had poor roads seaports farther away from interior internal tolls and tariffs

18 also had fewer raw materials, esp. coal and esp. in east Euro which was effectively landlocked no merchant marine or navy to get raw materials from overseas or ship produced goods out

19 rich invested less in industry ("ungentlemanly“) wars associated with French Rev had consumed time, money, manpower

20 Britain unsuccessful in maintaining monopoly on tech advances Until 1825, illegal for artisans, skilled mechanics to leave Britain Until 1843, export of textile machinery, other equipment forbidden Didn’t stop it from happening

21 Belgium 1830s pioneered organization of big corporations with many stockholders Banks in France, Germ 1850s in developing RRs and companies in heavy industries Crédit Mobilier of Paris most famous --helped build RRs all over France, Euro

22 * Zollverein - free trade zone in Germany that spurred construction of rail lines

23 child labor employed in factories and mines, often due to small physical stature ability to perform tasks adults struggled to complete less expensive to hire parents needed the money

24 no gov regs to prevent children from working most famous study of child labor in Britain: Sadler Commission  Sadler Report ( ) to Parliament little time to spend with families or leisure activities

25 women entered work force in large numbers women had “dual burden” of trad roles while also holding down a full- time job away from home GB world’s first urbanized society by mid19th cent

26 Luddites violent group of irate workers, blamed industrialism for threatening their jobs , attacked factories in northern England destroying new machines

27 Combination Act of 1799 outlawed unions and strikes continued to organize and strike, Combination Acts repealed 1824 Robert Owen and others tried to create national union of workers (Grand National Consolidated Trade Union) Robert Owen - Scottish industrialist who pioneered industrial relations by combining firm discipline w/ concern for health, safety, and work hours of workers experimented with utopian cooperative/socialist communities failed

28 Factory Act of 1802 (applied to textile industry) limited child labor and hours could work in textile factories failed to provide clear law and to include supervision to make sure the law was being followed law was largely ignored Factory Act of 1833 (applied to textile industry) Prohibited hiring children under age 9; children were to go to elementary schools Children (ages 14–18) must not work more than 12 hours a day Children (ages 9–13) must not work more than 8 hours. Children (ages 9–13) must have two hours of education per day. Children under 18 must not work at night provided for routine inspections of factories

29 Mines Act of 1842: prohibited all boys and girls under age 10 from working underground Ten Hours Act (1847) - women and children between the ages of 13 and 18 could work maximum of 10 hrs/day or 58 hrs/week Factory Act (1833), Mines Act (1842) and the Ten Hours Act (1847) were all led by Lord Shaftesbury, a member of Parl and evangelical in Church of England. "God had called me," he wrote, "to labour among the poor."


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