Presentation on theme: "April 30, 2015S. Mathews1 Human Geography By James Rubenstein Chapter 11 Key Issue 1 Where did industry originate?"— Presentation transcript:
April 30, 2015S. Mathews1 Human Geography By James Rubenstein Chapter 11 Key Issue 1 Where did industry originate?
April 30, 2015S. Mathews2 Industrial Revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods. Began in the U.K. in the late 1700s.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews3 The Industrial Revolution The root of the Industrial Revolution was technology. The changes required took decades. Resulted in new social, economic, and political inventions.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews4 Cottage Industry Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews5 Labor intensive cottage industry
April 30, 2015S. Mathews6 Steam Engine Invented by the Greeks in their Golden Age, it was relegated to the status of a toy. Patented by James Watt in 1769, it proved to be the most important technological development for the growth of factories.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews7 Example of the Greek Steam Engine
April 30, 2015S. Mathews9 Diffusion of the Industrial Revolution The iron industry was first to benefit from Watt’s steam engine, and The textile industry followed.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews10 The Diffusion of the Iron Industry Watt’s steam engine provided a practical way to maintain heat in the smeltering process. Henry Cort patented two processes that improved the purification of iron.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews11 Coal When wood as a fuel source became scarce, coke (purified carbon made from coal) produced high quality iron. The iron industry clustered around productive coalfields.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews12 Engineering Modern engineering began when James Watt and Matthew Boulton established the Soho Foundry at Birmingham, England in 1795. They produced hundreds of inventions that aided the industrial processes.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews13 Transportation Canals and Railways played a critical role in diffusing the Industrial Revolution; Enabled factories to attract workers, Moved bulky raw materials, Shipped finished goods to consumers.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews14 Canals Francis Egerton built a canal between Worsley and Manchester in 1761, which launched a generation of canal building in England. They enabled industrial goods and workers to be moved long distances quickly.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews15 The Railway Superseded the canal systems. The locomotive using Watt’s steam engine on iron tracks was effectively demonstrated in 1812.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews16 The hearth of the Industrial Revolution. Originated in Northern England and Southern Scotland in the late 18 th century near productive coalfields.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews17 Textiles Fabrics made by weaving wool or cotton, used in making clothing.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews18 The Diffusion of the Textile Industry Changes in technology, such as Richard Arkwright’s improved the process of turning short cotton fibers into continuous yarn in 1768, moved the manufacture of textiles from cottage industries to factories.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews21 Chemicals In 1798, a chlorine gas based product greatly sped up the process of bleaching cotton. Sulfuric acid based product aided in the dying of cloth. Today, many synthetic fibers such as nylon, Dacron, and Orlon are used in the textile industry.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews22 Food Processing Factory workers were unable to grow their own food. Peter Durand developed a practical way to preserve food in tin cans in 1839. Calcium chloride added to water aided in the killing of bacteria.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews23 Diffusion from the U.K. The 1851 World’s Fair in the U.K., housed in a glass and iron building known as the Crystal Palace, symbolized the Industrial Revolution At that time, the U.K. was the greatest industrial power of the world.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews25 Diffusion to Europe The political instability (wars) on the continent delayed the diffusion of the industrial revolution to Western Europe. The diffusion of railways in Europe was delayed 50 years.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews26 The diffusion of the railway reflects the diffusion of the Industrial Revolution.
April 30, 2015S. Mathews27 Diffusion to the U.S. The first U.S. textile mill was built in Rhode Island by Samuel Slater in 1791. By 1860, the U.S. industrial might was second only to the U.K. Industrial diffusion to the rest of the world occurred in the 20 th century.